« Le Deuxième Sexe » fait école à Kaboul

Les etudes de genre et des femmes font leur entree a l’universite en Afghanistan, avec la creation d’un master. Un cursus qui ne fait pas l’unanimite chez les universitaires.

E t si elle etait la, la lueur d’espoir qui passe inapercue sous les feux de l’actualite afghane ? En juillet, des etudiants sortiront diplomes d’un cursus Etudes du genre et des femmes. Une premiere dans le pays.

Ce master, unique en Afghanistan, n’a pas encore droit a un imposant batiment, ni meme a un etage pour lui seul, mais a une petite salle discrete sur le campus de l’universite de Kaboul.

En deambulant le long des grandes allees fleuries, sans patrouilles militaires ni murs de protection, on oublierait presque que le pays est en guerre. Quelques etudiantes osent meme devoiler leur visage maquille, en rehaussant leur foulard de quelques centimetres au-dessus du front.

Pendant longtemps, des intervenants du monde entier ont afflue en Afghanistan pour y promouvoir le droit des femmes. Jusqu’au jour ou le Programme des Nations unies pour le developpement (PNUD) s’est dit que le changement pouvait peut-etre venir du pays lui-meme, a condition de donner aux Afghans les moyens de s’emparer de ces questions.

De nombreux ministeres et administrations possedent deja des departements consacres a l’« egalite des droits entre hommes et femmes ». « Mais ils ressemblent a des coquilles vides, explique Farima Naderi, qui supervise ce master au PNUD, car personne n’a vraiment les outils ou parfois la legitimite pour changer les choses. »

Malgre une amelioration de la condition des femmes depuis la chute des talibans en 2001, 87 % sont toujours soumises a des violences, allant du mariage force a la lapidation. Les deux tiers d’entre elles sont mariees avant l’age de 16 ans. Et un decret presidentiel, datant de 2009, visant a eliminer ces pratiques, reste largement inapplique, faute d’acces a la justice.

Dans le nouveau master, un cours intitule « Role des femmes dans les civilisations de l’Islam » apprend aux etudiants que la place de ces dernieres dans la religion a evolue au fil des siecles. Le module consacre a la « budgetisation » consiste a definir des depenses tenant compte des besoins specifiques des femmes.

« L’egalite des droits doit s’imposer comme une nouvelle grille de lecture, espere Farima Naderi. On veut former les premiers specialistes afghans pour que leurs idees infusent le reste de la societe. »

Parmi les trente etudiants de la premiere promotion, Nargis, une enseignante de russe, reve de travailler dans la diplomatie : « Mon pays m’appartient autant qu’aux hommes. Alors pourquoi seraient-ils les seuls a le representer ? »

L’etudiante de 25 ans a recemment decouvert une auteure dont elle ne se rappelle plus le nom : « Celle qui a ecrit qu’une femme n’etait pas obligee de se marier ou d’avoir des enfants. » Ses ecrits l’ont tellement impressionnee qu’elle a traduit, du persan en dari, un chapitre entier de son ouvrage, Le Deuxieme Sexe, et l’a fait circuler parmi ses proches et sa famille.

« Simone de Beauvoir, lui glisse sa voisine Zhella, celle qui a ecrit que les femmes ont le droit de choisir, et de refuser le conditionnement de la societe qui decide de tout pour nous. »

La plupart des etudiants interroges font pourtant la grimace a l’evocation du mot « feminisme ». « C’est un concept occidental, opine Nargis. J’ai entendu dire que les feministes defendaient les couples du meme sexe. C’est contraire aux valeurs de l’islam. »

Le seul a se revendiquer feministe s’appelle Mujid. Il porte un costume a fines

rayures et une cravate en soie bleue. « Le patriarcat pese lourd sur les epaules des hommes, lache ce haut fonctionnaire. La societe afghane nous soumet a de nombreuses contraintes et obligations. »

Mujid est devenu feministe par hasard, en preparant une presentation a l’occasion de la Journee internationale des droits des femmes, lorsqu’il etait etudiant. Quand il a appris, des annees plus tard, que le master Etudes du genre et des femmes allait ouvrir, il a saute sur l’occasion.

Son epouse a pourtant tente de le dissuader de s’inscrire dans un cursus « pour femmes ». Depuis, il tente de la convertir en lui offrant regulierement des articles ou des livres sur les theories feministes.

A chaque ouvrage qu’elle lit, il lui offre meme un cadeau. « J’espere qu’un jour elle deviendra feministe. C’est la seule revolution a portee de main, ici, en Afghanistan », pense Mujid.

A quelques metres de la sur le campus, dans l’imposant batiment consacre a l’etude de la loi islamique, les professeurs regardent ces nouveaux enseignements avec mefiance. Ici, les hommes et les femmes etudient dans des classes separees.

« Il n’y a pas d’egalite parfaite entre les deux sexes, estime l’un des professeurs. Si peu de femmes deviennent juges par exemple, c’est qu’elles n’ont pas la force de signer des condamnations a mort, conformement au Coran. » Une bataille opposant Simone de Beauvoir au livre sacre est-elle en train de se jouer sur le campus de l’universite de Kaboul ? « Non, rectifie Zhella, pour nous c’est Simone de Beauvoir et le Coran. »

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Download Windows 10

The Update Assistant can help you update to the latest version of Windows 10. To get started, click Update now.

To get started, you will first need to have a license to install Windows 10. You can then download and run the media creation tool. For more information on how to use the tool, see the instructions below.

Here’s when to use these instructions:


  • You have a license to install Windows 10 and are upgrading this PC from Windows 7 or Windows 8.1.
  • You need to reinstall Windows 10 on a PC you’ve already successfully activated Windows 10.

If you are installing Windows 10 on a PC running Windows XP or Windows Vista, or if you need to create installation media to install Windows 10 on a different PC, see Using the tool to create installation media (USB flash drive, DVD, or ISO file) to install Windows 10 on a different PC section below.

Note: Before you install Windows 10, check to make sure your PC meets the system requirements for Windows 10. We also recommend going to the PC manufacturer's website for any additional info about updated drivers and hardware compatibility.


  1. Select Download tool, and select Run. You need to be an administrator to run this tool.
  2. On the License terms page, if you accept the license terms, select Accept.
  3. On the What do you want to do? page, select Upgrade this PC now, and then select Next.

After downloading and installing, the tool will walk you through how to set up Windows 10 on your PC. All Windows 10 editions are available when you select Windows 10, except for Enterprise edition. For more information on Enterprise edition, go to the Volume Licensing Service Center.


  • If you don't have a license to install Windows 10 and have not yet previously upgraded to it, you can purchase a copy here: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/get-windows-10.
  • If you previously upgraded to Windows 10 on this PC and you’re reinstalling it, you don’t need to enter a product key. Your copy of Windows 10 will automatically activate later using your digital license.
When Windows 10 is ready to install, you’ll see a recap of what you’ve chosen, and what will be kept through the upgrade. Select Change what to keep to set whether you would like to Keep personal files and apps, or Keep personal files only, or choose to keep Nothing during the upgrade. Save and close any open apps and files you may be running, and when you’re ready, select Install. It might take some time to install Windows 10, and your PC will restart a few times. Make sure you don’t turn off your PC.

Follow these steps to create installation media (USB flash drive or DVD) you can use to install a new copy of Windows 10, perform a clean installation, or reinstall Windows 10.


  • An internet connection (internet service provider fees may apply).
  • Sufficient data storage available on a computer, USB or external drive for the download.
  • A blank USB flash drive with at least 8GB of space or blank DVD (and DVD burner) if you want to create media. We recommend using a blank USB or blank DVD, because any content on it will be deleted.
  • When burning a DVD from an ISO file, if you are told the disc image file is too large you will need to use Dual Layer (DL) DVD Media.

Check a few things on the PC where you want to install Windows 10:


  • 64-bit or 32-bit processor (CPU). You’ll create either a 64-bit or 32-bit version of Windows 10. To check this on your PC, go to PC info in PC settings or System in Control Panel, and look for System type.
  • System requirements. Make sure the PC meets the system requirements for Windows 10. We also recommend going to the PC manufacturer's website for additional info about updated drivers and hardware compatibility.
  • Language in Windows. You'll need to choose the same language when you install Windows 10. To see what language you're currently using, go to Time and language in PC settings or Region in Control Panel.
  • Edition of Windows. You should also choose the same edition of Windows. To check what edition you're currently running, go to PC info in PC settings or System in Control Panel, and look for Windows edition. Windows 10 Enterprise isn’t available in the media creation tool. For more info, go to the Volume Licensing Service Center.
  • Microsoft Office products. If you just purchased a new device that includes Office 365, we recommend redeeming (installing) Office before upgrading to Windows 10. To redeem your copy of Office, please see Download and install Office 365 Home, Personal, or University on your PC. For more information, check How to upgrade to Windows 10 on new devices that include Office 365.

If you have Office 2010 or earlier and choose to perform a clean install of Windows 10, you will need to locate your Office product key. For tips on locating your product key, check Find your Office 2010 product key or Enter the product key for your Office 2007 program.


  1. Select Download tool now, and select Run. You need to be an administrator to run this tool.
  2. If you agree to the license terms, select Accept.
  3. On the What do you want to do? page, select Create installation media for another PC, and then select Next.

Select the language, edition, and architecture (64-bit or 32-bit) for Windows 10. This table will help you decide which edition of Windows 10 you’ll choose:

Windows 7 Home Premium

Windows 7 Ultimate

Windows 8/8.1 Professional with Media Center

Windows 8 Single Language with Bing

Windows 8 Chinese Language Edition with Bing

Before you install Windows 10, it’s a good idea to save any work and back up your PC before you start. If you used the media creation tool to download an ISO file for Windows 10, you’ll need to burn it to a DVD before following these steps.


  1. Attach the USB flash drive or insert the DVD on the PC where you want to install Windows 10.
  2. Restart your PC, and then press any key to boot from the USB flash drive or the DVD.

If you restart your PC and your current version of Windows starts, you might have to open a boot menu or change the boot order in your PC's BIOS or UEFI settings so that your PC boots from the media. To open a boot menu or change the boot order, you'll typically need to press a combination of keys (such as F2, F12, Delete, or Esc) immediately after you turn on your PC. For instructions on changing the boot order for your PC, check the documentation that came with your PC or go to the manufacturer's website.

If changing the boot menu or order doesn't work, try again by signing in to Windows, shutting down, and then starting your PC.

If you downloaded an ISO file for Windows 10, the file is saved locally at the location you selected. If you have a third-party DVD burning program installed on your computer that you prefer to use for creating the installation DVD, that program might open by going to the location where the file is saved and double-clicking the ISO file, or right-click the ISO file, select Open with and choose your preferred DVD burning software.

If you want to use the Windows Disk Image Burner to create an installation DVD, go to the location where the ISO file is saved. Right-click the ISO file and select Properties. On the General tab, click Change and select Windows Explorer for the program you would like to use to open ISO files and select Apply. Then right-click the ISO file and select Burn disc image.

If you want to install Windows 10 directly from the ISO file without using a DVD or flash drive, you can do so by mounting the ISO file. This will perform an upgrade of your current operating system to Windows 10.


  1. Go to the location where the ISO file is saved, right-click the ISO file and select Properties.
  2. On the General tab, click Change… and select Windows Explorer for the program you would like to use to open ISO files and select Apply.
  3. Right-click the ISO file and select Mount.
  4. Double-click the ISO file to view the files within. Double-click setup.exe to start Windows 10 setup.

If you are re-installing Windows 10 Pro for Workstations on your PC, you need to create installation media using the Media Creation Tool and choose Windows 10 as your edition. When you start the installation, choose to skip entering a product key, and instead choose to install Windows 10 Pro. Once you are at the Windows 10 Pro desktop, from the Start Menu, click Settings then Update & security, and Activation. If your PC was previously running Windows 10 Pro for Workstations, click the Go to store button and you can reclaim the edition change to Windows 10 Pro for Workstations at no additional charge.

*Your use of the media creation tools on this site is governed by the Microsoft Terms of Use for this website.