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Lead From Behind: How Unipolarity Is Adapting To Multipolarity

The US is constructing a global system of bilateral and multilateral alliances to assist it in more efficiently projecting power throughout the 21st century. As the world moves towards multipolarity, the US is prepared to exploit this trend to its geopolitical advantage.

Instead of ‘going it alone’ as Bush was prone to do, the US is now finding ways to get others to do its dirty work by convincing its ‘partners’ that they have a shared interest in doing so. During the 2011 War on Libya, France and the UK took the helm while the US, as it was described, “Led From Behind”. A New York Times editorial at the time defined this as “discreet US military assistance with [others] doing the trumpeting”. Four years later, this concept has grown out of its Libyan test tube and gone global, with the US setting up similar alliance systems all throughout the world in order to indirectly project its will in key regions. As the cynical saying goes, “Why do for yourself what others can do for you?”

Let’s take a look at the US’ Lead From Behind (LFB) partners, beginning from the Western Hemisphere and moving eastward:

The US works closely with the Pacific Alliance, a neo-liberal economic trading group composed of close allies Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Chile. Their shared goal is to counter the leftist economic vision emanating from Venezuela and to dismantle its geopolitical resistance network of Nicaragua, Cuba, Ecuador, and Bolivia. The end result is to surround and contain Brazil in case it ever decides to seriously counter the US’ influence.

Germany, the economic engine of the EU, is the primary LFB state for inter-European affairs, but the US has also designated sub-LFB partners for three strategic regions:

* The Baltics: Sweden is all but an official NATO member, and other than militarizing based on a phantom Russian submarine threat, its goal is to jointly bring neutral Finland, with its long and exposed border with Russia, formally into the alliance and provoke a new crisis in East-West relations.

* Eastern Europe: Poland has always harbored ambitions of restoring its former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth over modern-day Belarus and Ukraine, and it partnered with the US in destabilizing Ukraine and fortifying Kiev’s forces in order to expand its coveted sphere of influence.

* Balkan/Mideast Crossroads: NATO-member Turkey was supposed to ‘hold the fort’ for the US at this critical geopolitical juncture, but after Washington started toying with the tool of Kurdish nationalism as a means of pressuring Ankara, it rapidly redirected some of its loyalty to the multipolar world.

In general, France is the US’ military designator for the continent, seeing as how it has a few thousand troops scattered across close to a dozen countries there, but as with Europe, the US also has a few sub-LFB partners in Africa:

* West/Central Africa: The ECOWAS regional integrational organization has lately been flexing its military muscle (however long it took to deploy) in Mali, while the Chadian military from the continent’s central reaches has projected power there, in Cameroon, and the Central African Republic. Although Nigeria is part of ECOWAS, the US doesn’t trust it to be a loyal unipolar proxy, and accordingly seeks to strengthen the states around it (and turn a blind eye to Boko Haram) as a buffering influence.

* East Africa: Uganda and Rwanda had previously teamed up under US guidance to occupy most of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and plunder the country’s vast mineral resources. After having experienced a following out over the past decade, Uganda now holds the upper hand, and it followed US ‘suggestions’ in sending its troops to the Central African Republic, South Sudan, and Somalia, while continuing to administer much of the DRC.

Saudi Arabia is the obvious LFB designate here, and through the GCC, it controls a lesser constellation of proxies that have all been armed to the teeth by American and Western arms shipments directed against Iran.

The US has yet to formally crown any state as its LFB partner, but if Obama’s recent India trip proves to be any indication, then it certainly has set its sights on India for this important role. The question is, will India bite the bait and risk confrontation with China?

Things are a bit trickier in this region, but the US would like for Vietnam and the Philippines to join together in a political-military alliance to counter China’s claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam, a land power, would serve as the complement to the Philippines, which could essentially become an ‘unsinkable aircraft carrier’. The US is also encouraging deeper Indian-Japanese cooperation in this region, specifically on the naval front, as a form of Chinese containment. Further south, Indonesia’s enormous economy could become a Chinese-Western hybrid, thereby forming a partial bulwark against a fully China-influenced region.

Japan is the lynchpin of the US’ East Asian strategy, but it’s trying to integrate South Korea (traditionally pragmatic and economically close to China) into a larger pro-US security framework. The first step has already been taken, since all three states are now sharing intelligence against North Korea, thus creating strategic mechanisms that can quickly be redirected against China sometime in the future.

The US has lately made attempts to ‘flip’ certain multipolar states and bring them into its fold, offering them deals and ‘diplomacy’ in order to get their guard down (much as it did to Libya before the 2011 war against it). The two current examples are Cuba and Iran, with the former having dangerously taken the carrot while the latter seems to properly understand the stick that silently comes with it. The US’ intentions in such highly publicized ‘peaceful’ outreaches must surely be questioned, since its immediate rejection of North Korea’s offer to halt its nuclear program in exchange for the cessation of joint US-South Korean military drills shows that it is only serious about one-sided ‘deals’ in its favor. When it comes down to it, if the US can’t indirectly control a state by LFB proxy or trick it into lowering its strategic defenses, then deception gives way to destruction, as those in Syria and Eastern Ukraine unfortunately know all too well.

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Политика

Администрация США не зайдет дальше обвинений Путина в коррупции

Заявления властей США о том, что президент России Владимир Путин якобы коррупционер и обогатил представителей своего ближнего круга, заставили Кремль занять активную оборону. Государственные каналы, вынужденные цитировать обвинения, говорят об информационной атаке на Россию. Впрочем, на данный момент администрация США хочет только создать видимость полноценной атаки.

Сделанное на этой неделе в фильме «Би-би-си» «Тайные богатства Путина» заявление Адама Шубина — мало кому известного в России чиновника минфина США — о личной коррумпированности президента Путина стало первым жестким обвинением такого рода со стороны Вашингтона за последние несколько лет.

Несмотря на то что отношения между Россией и США резко ухудшились в 2014 году после конфликта на Украине, все это время подобных заявлений в сторону российского президента в Вашингтоне не делали.

Но уже на следующий день после премьеры фильма «Тайные богатства Путина» официальный представитель администрации президента США Барака Обамы Джош Эрнест подтвердил: слова Шубина соответствуют позиции Белого дома.

Республиканцы провели дебаты без Трампа, но не забыли о Путине


«Би-би-си» повторяет факты, давно опубликованные и на Западе, и в российской оппозиционной печати. «Тайные богатства» отличаются только одним: ранее ни в одном фильме чиновник американского минфина официально не выступал с обвинениями в адрес президента России.

Нельзя сказать, что фильм застал Кремль врасплох. Пресс-секретарь президента РФ Дмитрий Песков уже не раз опровергал западные обвинения такого рода и называл их клеветой. Еще в мае 2015 года он комментировал вопросы западных СМИ о связях Путина и бизнесмена Геннадия Тимченко, а также о характере работы нынешнего российского лидера в Санкт-Петербурге.

Тогда Песков лично зачитал российским журналистам присланные запросы от «лондонской газеты и американского СМИ» и добавил, что на Западе готовят информационные атаки на Кремль.

Само по себе обнародование вопросов было беспрецедентно. Кремль получает сотни писем от западных журналистов и не считает нужным разглашать их содержание. Возможно, Песков сделал это, понимая: фильм выйдет и так, но упреждающая реакция Кремля может ослабить негативный имиджевый эффект.

Посол США в России Джон Теффт назвал полезной встречу Суркова и Нуланд

Как правило, Кремль вообще не реагирует на негативную информацию о Путине, которая публикуется в западных СМИ. Тем более что в таких статьях действительно нередко сгущаются краски.

Примером может служить статья журнала Newsweek о жизни Путина, опубликованная в июне 2014 года под названием «За сценой путинского двора». В ней обычные вещи для государственного деятеля вроде транспортировки личного автомобиля президента для использования его в зарубежных поездках преподносились как признаки развращенности российской власти.

Не было реакции и на опубликованный в 2007 году доклад группы влиятельных политологов из Центра стратегических и международных исследований в Вашингтоне, в котором среди негативных альтернативных сценариев возможного будущего называлось убийство президента России.

Путин всегда был одним из любимых героев (точнее, антигероев) западных статей и аналитических докладов. Однако тон критических публикаций о России и Путине не только в СМИ, но и в определенных группах экспертного сообщества действительно усилился благодаря недавнему докладу об убийстве бывшего офицера ФСБ Александра Литвиненко. Доклад публичного расследования о его гибели 23 января был представлен британским судьей Робертом Оуэном.

На этой неделе материал о возможной «битве титанов» — главы «Роснефти» Игоря Сечина и главы Чечни Рамзана Кадырова — за влияние на президента России появился на сайте аналитического агентства Stratfor, которое часто называют «теневым ЦРУ».

Пресс-секретарь Путина Дмитрий Песков объясняет негатив, который в последнее время циркулирует в британских и американских СМИ в отношении президента Путина, подготовкой к выборам в России 2018 года. «Ясно, что аккумулируется негатив, причем негатив в отношении главы нашего государства, который, конечно же, используется для оказания давления и влияния на ход будущей избирательной кампании», — считает Песков.

Однако учитывая ситуацию в самих США, волна негативной информации о Путине объясняется скорее нервной атмосферой в преддверии американских выборов. Единственным защитником Путина из ведущих американских кандидатов выглядит одиозный миллиардер и шоумен, республиканец Дональд Трамп.

Хиллари Клинтон против наземной операции в Сирии

Близкий к республиканской администрации Джорджа Буша-младшего политолог Дмитрий Саймс объяснил в эфире телеканала «Россия», что жесткие высказывания Белого дома можно объяснить конкуренцией между ныне правящей Демократической партией и ее конкурентом Республиканской партией. Администрация демократа Барака Обамы «не хочет, чтобы у республиканцев создалось впечатление, будто президент слабак, будто Обама отступает перед Путиным и будто Путин переигрывает Обаму», считает Саймс.

В свою очередь директор Института Кеннона Мэтью Роджански не считает, что усилившийся в США негативный тон в отношении Путина несет в себе что-то особенно «драматическое». «Обвинения в коррупции циркулировали уже много лет, их выдвигали различные официальные и частные лица на Западе», — говорит «Газете.Ru» Роджански.

Роджански считает, что говорить о смене режима в России как о главной цели нынешней информационного стратегии Белого дома нельзя. «Во-первых, я не думаю, что такова цель. Во-вторых, это все равно не сработает», — объясняет политолог.

В администрации Обамы никогда не скрывали, что пристально следят за борьбой кремлевских башен и надеялись скорее не на уличные выступления, а на победу сторонников более «прозападной линии».

Об этом, в частности, говорил на слушаниях в сенате США будущий американский посол в России Джон Теффт летом 2014 года. Он сказал, что будет внимательно наблюдать за битвой «модернизаторов» и «националистов», которые тянут Россию назад.

Но хотя ясно, на чьей стороне симпатии Вашингтона, масштабное давление на Путина и его власть Белый дом все-таки не оказывает. Речь идет скорее об усилении антикремлевской риторики в конце президентского срока Барака Обамы. Для радикальных действий и провоцирования внутреннего конфликта по типу египетской революции 2011 года у администрации Обамы нет больших возможностей. Нет на это и времени: до выборов в США осталось меньше года, а ситуация в России гораздо стабильнее того же Египта на излете власти Хосни Мубарака.

Обсуждать российско-американские отношения в таком разрезе вхожие в Белый дом политики не хотят даже гипотетически. Один из бывших чиновников администрации Обамы, к которому «Газета.Ru» обратилась за комментариями, например, объяснил свой отказ слишком деликатной темой.

Президент США выступил с ежегодным посланием к нации

«Сейчас не только не время воевать, но и нет никакой проблемы, стоящей перед администрацией США, которая решалась бы через начало «холодной войны» с Россией или Путиным», — заявил «Газете.Ru» глава Центра глобальных интересов в Вашингтоне Николай Злобин.

Видя, что конфликт на Украине идет на спад, а в сирийском конфликте Россия стала даже фактическим союзником США, администрации Обамы можно спокойно досидеть до конца срока без конфронтации с Путиным. Высказывания отдельных чиновников могут отражать расхожие антипутинские настроения, но это лишь демонстрирует, что США думают о России и помнят о ее интересах.

Более того, влиятельные представители администрации и Госдепа США, включая госсекретаря Джона Керри, говорят о возможности снятия с России санкций после выполнения минских соглашений, об окончании конфликта на востоке Украины.

К жесткой риторике в адрес Кремля Вашингтон могла подтолкнуть ухудшившаяся экономическая ситуация в России. И хотя экономика страны «не разорвана в клочья», как заявлял в своем прошлогоднем обращении к нации Обама, ее состояние действительно ухудшается. Это может, как полагают в США, вызвать социальные протесты и изменение политического курса.

«Обвинения в коррупции — это политический удар по системе путинизма. Цель — использовать экономические проблемы в России. Однако налицо непонимание Белого дома, что подобное в России и тем более в отношении путинистской системы не работает», — рассказывает американский политолог Теодор Карасик, в прошлом специалист по СССР.

По мнению Николая Злобина, хотя в США «нет практического запроса на обострение отношений с Россией, но есть силы, пытающиеся его создать». «Своя собственная антироссийская мотивация есть у разных политических групп, но среди них нет единства», — считает эксперт.

В случае если с России не будут сняты санкции до конца правления Обамы, то их бенефициаром может стать не демократическая, а республиканская администрация. В администрации президента-республиканца могут получить значительную власть неоконсерваторы — сторонники смены неугодных режимов.

Сара Пэйлин высказалась в поддержку кампании Дональда Трампа

Например, среди членов предвыборной команды республиканца Джеба Буша немало выходцев из администрации его брата, экс-президента Джорджа Буша. Они настроены к российскому режиму жестко.

Дело даже не в коррупции или проблемах с демократичностью внутренней политики Кремля — давлении на гражданское общество, правозащитников, прессу, а также контроле над законодательной властью. Проблема Путина, считают многие в Вашингтоне, хотя и не любят говорить об этом публично, состоит в том, что, управляя слабой в экономическом отношении страной, он бросает открытый вызов Вашингтону на мировой арене.


Взгляды Киркпатрик ценил Рональд Рейган, который и назначил ее на пост в администрации, а затем послом США в ООН.

Президент России Владимир Путин с таким высказыванием точно бы согласился.

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RULES

A.1 Authority

These regulations are published under the authority of World Sailing.

The official language of these regulations is English. In the event of a dispute, the English text shall prevail over any translation.

The word shall is mandatory and the word may is permissive.

World Sailing has the right to amend these regulations if necessary.

Any interpretations shall be made by World Sailing.

In case of doubt about any part of these regulations, the meaning, i.e. the spirit of the regulations governs.

Notwithstanding anything contained in these regulations, World Sailing or a National Authority shall have the power to refuse to grant, or withdraw, the status of recognized Class or a rating certificate from any Multihull, giving reasons in writing for taking such action.

World Sailing does not accept any legal responsibility in respect of these regulations.

These rules are intended to allow a wide range of catamarans to race together. Boats from established classes with class rules must comply with their class rules and can use the ratings on the SCHRS list.

Any catamaran of a type not listed on the SCHRS list must have an individual SCHRS rating certificate signed by a measurer recognized by World Sailing or a National Authority.

These rules are created mainly for production boats.

Non-productions catamarans, experimental boats and new types with provisional rating may be ranked apart.

A production boat belongs to a registered class or to a registered type.

The qualification of registered class or registered type requires the following conditions:


  1. 1. A minimum of 5 boats should have been built all with the same measurements as in C2 below.
  2. 2. There should be published class rules (effective for new types after 01/06/2001) which include the data listed in C2.
  3. 3. The boat should be (or have been) available to the wider public for purchase.
  4. 4. The boat should have been presented to the nautical press.

A non-production boat is any boat which does not belong to a registered class or to a registered type. A boat built as a registered boat but which is modified in such way that she contravenes her class rules will be considered as a non-production boat.

To be permitted to race, unlisted boats shall provide a Rating Certificate recognised by World Sailing (SCHRS) as described below.


  • The request will be accepted only for the catamarans, or variants, not listed in the SCHRS ratings Table for the current year
  • No competitor will be granted more than one individual certificate per calendar year
  • The request for a Rating Certificate should be made by the owner, on the form which is downloadable from the SCHRS website. It must be completed and signed by a measurer recognized by World Sailing or a National Authority and must be sent by e-mail in pdf format to the Technical Committee of SCHRS. It is helpful (but not necessary) if a copy of the calculator is also attached
  • Within fifteen days after receiving the request form, correctly completed and signed by a measurer, the Technical Committee will send the "Individual Rating Certificate" to the owner, with a copy to the measurer
  • The Rating Certificate will be registered on the SCHRS website
  • The Rating Certificate is valid for the current calendar year. The SCHRS committee makes annual changes to the formula, and a new certificate will be therefore be required each year
  • The Rating Certificate should be presented at registration for official sailing races. Any changes which modify the data or characteristics of the boat would lead to the invalidity of this certificate
  • The Rating Certificate is not invalidated by change of ownership, providing the data remains constant. It is the current owner's responsibility to ensure compliance

N.B. A National Authority or recognized measurer may require a fee.

C.1 Principle

Ratings, (i.e. time dividing factors,) are calculated on the basis of measurable data, warranted by classes, builders or importers, and are calculated using the formula described as follows, verifiable by anyone.

The inputs to the formula are as follows:


  • WC Reference weight of the crew.
  • WS Minimum weight of the catamaran ready to sail.
  • AL Maximum overall length of the hulls.
  • WL Maximum waterline length (before Jan 1st 2007).
  • CM Maximum authorised mainsail area.
  • VLM Maximum vertical projection of the luff of the mainsail.
  • CJ Maximum authorised jib area.
  • VLJ Maximum vertical projection of the luff of the jib.
  • CSPI Maximum authorised spinnaker area.
  • MGR Mid girth spinnaker/Foot 0.5

C.3.3 Corrections and Penalties

C.3.4 Power Factor

C.3.5 Rating (or Time Dividing Factor)

where the final rating will be calculated to 3 decimal places and where SH is the Sinking Hull adjustment applied to specific classes.

All measurements must be undertaken according to World Sailing measurement rules and instructions.

For "Formula" type classes such as Formula 18 and A-Class, the rating is to reflect the limiting values for all relevant measurements permitted by the class rules. Where a measurement is required by SCHRS but not governed by class rules the figure used by SCHRS should be based on best practice, as used by a sample of boats in the top 10% of the fleet.

The weight per crew member (WCM) is assumed to vary according to the length of the boat and the number of crew in accordance with the following formula:

WCM = 70kg + Rated Length (L) in excess of 5m x 10 capped at 80kg (double handed)

WCM = 70kg + Rated Length (L) in excess of 5m x 10 capped at 80kg (single handed for L>5.48m)

WCM = 67kg + Rated Length (L) in excess of 5m x 10 capped at 75kg (singled handed for L

Our Ocean

Over recent decades, our marine environments have undergone widespread deterioration. To turn this tide, the world must commit to sustainable action and invest in innovative solutions. Organised since 2014, the Our Ocean conferences are all about driving these commitments.


  • 437 tangible and measurable commitments
  • EUR 7.2 billion in financial pledges
  • 2.5 million square kilometres of additional Marine Protected Areas

Palau announced that it will host the 2020 Our Ocean Conference.

The European Union announced the launch of WISE-Marine, a gateway to information on European water issues for the general public and stakeholders to promote better ocean governance and ecosystem-based management. The platform will be expanded and integrated further in the years to come.

The European Union announced that it will commit EUR 2.85 million to marine pollution prevention and preparedness projects and EUR 2.5 million to marine pollution exercises, to support and complement the cross-border cooperation efforts between EU countries and with selected countries in the EU's vicinity.

Australia announced the update of the threat abatement plan prepared in 2009, by mid-2018 aiming at providing national guidance on specific action to prevent and mitigate the impacts of marine debris. Injury and fatality to vertebrate marine life caused by harmful marine debris was listed as a key threatening process under Australia's Environment law. The plan update addresses six objectives, including the removal of existing marine debris and the increase of public awareness of the issue.

Austria together with major trade companies, Greenpeace and Global 2000, reaffirmed their commitment to reduce carrier bags. The objective is to reach a maximum of 25 plastic bags per person a year and reduce the use of disposable carrier bags made from other materials such as paper by 2025. Disposable carrier bags made from all types of materials will only be handed out against payment. Austria will publish an annual report to assess the progress achieved.

Bangladesh announced that the legislative measures in force resulted in the ban of plastic shopping bags production. They will be reinforced by committing further resources to prevent the production and significantly reduce the use of plastic shopping bags by 2025. In a first phase, plastic production will be reduced by 60% by 2019.

Chile announced that it will ban plastic bags in coastal cities throughout the country. Once the law is approved by the National Congress, Chile will be the first American country to implement this type of ban.

China announced EUR 8 million (USD 9 million) worth national research projects to develop marine micro plastics, jellyfish, red tide, pathogenic microorganisms monitoring and preventing technology. China also announced its intention to focus on the elimination of plastic waste pollution in estuaries and bays and to formulate plans for action against pollution from marine wastes.

Denmark announced EUR 400,000 (DKK 3 million) for an awareness raising campaign on marine litter in 2018 targeting all types of fishers, people on boats and in harbours as well as those visiting the beaches.

Denmark announced it has allocated EUR 161,300 for a first beach litter survey in selected 4 areas in Greenland including monitoring of microplastic in fulmars.

France announced that it is committed to ban single-use plastic cups, glasses and plates by 1 January 2020. France also announced that it will no longer sell cosmetic products containing plastic microbeads by 1 January 2018 and cotton buds with plastic stems by 1 January 2020.

France announced that it will create by 1st January 2018 a structured network that will address the issue of end-of-life recreational craft. By 2021, 26,000 ships will be dismantled. This action will help improve waste disposal and promote circular economy.

France announced that over the next five years it will develop cross-border cooperation under the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC) to prosecute polluters responsible for oil spills in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

Ghana announced its commitment to eliminate pollution along the country's coast and significantly reduce pollution in the marine ecosystem by 2025, by tackling the current challenges posed by the use of plastics and indiscriminate disposal of waste.

Indonesia announced it will launch a National Action Plan on Marine Plastic Debris to achieve a reduction of 70% of its plastic debris by the end of 2025, therefore contributing to its national ambition to become trash-free. Indonesia also announced it will invest up to EUR 0.85 billion to develop a national programme to address the management of waste from land-based sources over the next four years. In addition, Indonesia announced the inclusion of the issue of Marine Plastic Debris in its national education programme

Ireland reaffirmed that by end 2018 it will introduce national legislation to prohibit the sale or manufacture of certain products containing microbeads including not just cosmetics but also body care and cleansing products as well as detergents and abrasive surface cleaning products.

Ireland announced the expansion of its 2015 "Fishing for Litter" programme to a further 2 ports/piers and 15 vessels which has encouraged fishermen to retain marine litter brought up in their nets for onshore disposal, with 46 trawlers in 7 different ports around the Irish coast now participating in that programme.

Korea reaffirmed its commitment to invest EUR 28 million (USD 33 million) annually to manage the marine environment around the Korean Peninsula. This includes monitoring the inflow of pollutants into the sea and restoring coastal ecosystems. Korea will also conduct research on marine litter and collect marine waste from the seabed.

Malta announced it will commit to introduce a beverage container refund scheme by the end of 2019 to ensure that at least 70% of the plastic bottles generated in its islands are recovered and mitigate the impact of marine litter on the ocean.

Norway announced a multi-annual programme to assist developing countries in improving waste management to prevent land-based litter from ending up in the ocean, including plastics and microplastics. Beach and coastal clean-ups may also be part of the initiative. The programme will be launched in 2018 with NOK 150 million - approximately EUR 16.2 million - set aside for the first year.

New Zealand announced it will ban all 'wash-off' products that contain plastic microbeads for exfoliating, cleansing or abrasive cleaning purposes. As well as personal care products, this includes household, car or other cleaning products. The ban will come into effect by May 2018.

Panama announced that by 2018 it will contribute more than EUR 850,256,000 (USD 1 billion) to the panama city and bay sanitation project to ensure the marine contamination is reduced and the health of Panama bay and marine ecosystems are restored.

The Republic of Palau announced that it has introduced a legislation to ban the importation of plastic bags, phasing out by 2025.

By 2020, Portugal reaffirmed its commitment to develop technological platforms and tools that reduce marine pollution and promote the circular economy of the sea.

Portugal announced the expansion of the project "Fisheries for a Sea Without Litter" by 2030 to all fishing ports in the Portuguese mainland.

Portugal reaffirmed the intention to work at the regional level, within the OSPAR Convention, for the reduction of marine litter in the Atlantic.

Sri Lanka announced its commitment to make the country polythene-free and to find a sustainable solution to ocean pollution and solid waste management. To this end, it will take measures including the ban on the import, manufacture and sale of harmful polythene products and the ban on the use of polythene for decorations.

Sweden announced the allocation of EUR 3.7 million (SEK 36 million) over the next three four years for a set of initiatives by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to support governments, industry and society in Eastern and Southern Africa and the Asia Pacific regions in promoting, enacting and enforcing legislation and other measures to contain and reduce marine plastic pollution.

Turkey announced that it will develop Marine Litter Action Plans for all coastal cities by the end of 2018. Clean-up activities, pollution reduction studies will be reported annually and minimization of marine litter will be conducted with relevant sectors such as plastics, cosmetics and textile within the framework of above mentioned Action Plans. Starting from 1 January 2019 pricing of plastic bags will be on the agenda.

The United Kingdom announced EUR 566,700 (GBP 500,000) to launch a new 'litter innovation fund' to trial small scale projects that could be replicated more widely, including those aimed at reducing litter entering the marine environment.

The United Kingdom announced the adoption of a Litter Strategy for England. The strategy aims to apply best practice in education, enforcement and infrastructure to deliver a substantial reduction in litter and littering behaviour on land, which in turn will lead to a reduction in the amount of litter reaching the marine environment. The Government will work with industry and community partners to implement this strategy. This is in addition to existing Litter Strategies in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom also announced it joined the UN Clean Seas Campaign, the Global Partnership on Marine Litter and the Global Ghost Gear Initiative.

The United Kingdom announced its commitment to banning plastic microbeads in rinse-off cosmetics and personal care products to protect the marine environment from avoidable microplastic pollution. It anticipates having bans on both manufacture and sale of such products in place across the whole of the UK by the end of June 2018.

The United States announced a contribution of up to EUR 418,000 (USD 500,000) to the New Plastics Economy Initiative's Circular Design Challenge. A partnership among USAID, the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, and a coalition of private companies and foundations, the Challenge will identify solutions to advance the development of new packaging formats and alternative delivery models for plastics.

The United States announced up to EUR 7.6 million (USD 9.1 million) over four years for the establishment of a small grants portfolio on waste recycling that will focus on municipal waste management and recycling efforts in Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. The objective is to improve waste management practices and reduce the amount of marine-bound plastics. The program will also evaluate the effectiveness of promising grants and provide recommendations on how USAID may scale these efforts.

The forty-three Union for the Mediterranean countries announced their agreement to set up by February 2018 a Task Force on Environment in order to facilitate the implementation, among others, of the H2020 Initiative for a Cleaner Mediterranean, which is joining efforts of all committed stakeholders in addressing the 80 per cent of the sources of pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by the year 2020. They agreed as well to define priorities, operational modalities and a work programme for depollution and pollution prevention of the Mediterranean Sea for the post-2020 period.

Borealis AG announced an investment of EUR 15 million to advance mechanical recycling of Polyolefins, further to the acquisition of Germany's polyolefin recycling company mtm plastics GmbH.

Borealis AG announced a EUR 4 million initiative to accelerate waste management improvements in South-East Asia to be rolled out in 2018-2019, driven and to be co-funded with local and global partners.

Borealis AG announced its commitment to zero pellet loss from its operations and to substantially invest in best available technology to prevent pellet loss.

The companies selling beverages in France announced a EUR 15,000,000 commitment by 2019 to implement the "Chaque Bouteille Compte (Each bottle counts) programme". This programme will improve the recycling rate of PET bottles, starting with two pilot projects in Paris and Marseille. This will contribute to saving natural resources and reducing litter.

The Camp for Future Generations Foundation announced a commitment of EUR 250,000 over the next two years to create a Plastic and Ocean Platform, coalition of scientists and NGOs to produce a common scientific position and enhance action on marine litter.

Clean Oceans International announced their commitment to deploy One hundred PTF500 units (Plastic To Fuel, 500 pounds/day) globally by 2022. Besides placing them on ships and on beaches, this commitment includes community education and monitoring the local environment to assess the impact of these units. 100 units, operating 300 days per year eliminate EUR 16 million (15 million pounds) of waste plastic that could otherwise harm the ocean environment. PPTF (Portable Plastic to Fuel) units go where the plastics are, in particular small communities and islands, and produce readily usable fuel without further refining.

The Coca-Cola Company announced that it will make all its consumer packaging 100% recyclable by 2025. While the great majority of the bottles and cans used to distribute its products are already 100% recyclable, the Company will expand 100% recyclability to its entire consumer packaging range (including pouches, cartons and others). This is one of many steps Coca-Cola will take to ensure its packaging gets recycled and does not end up in the wrong place, in particular our oceans. The Coca-Cola Company is building a more holistic packaging plan to move forward these efforts and will share details in the coming months.

The Dow Chemical Company announced EUR 128,100 (USD 151,000) funding for three new research project to help solve the issue of plastics marine litter. Two projects, one each in Japan and Indonesia, will set up systems to measure the flow of trash into the ocean, and will then propose solutions, based on that information, to prevent the characterized waste from reaching the ocean. The third project will test the use of non-recycled plastic in roadways in Indonesia, to help create a new end-use market for collected materials that might otherwise end up in the environment. This will help drive collection of low value plastics, keeping these materials out of the ocean.

ECOALF, by means of its Foundation supported by HAP FOUNDATION, in partnership with ECOEMBES and with the collaboration of the Spanish Fishing Confederation, announced that it will be extending the "Upcycling the Oceans" project to the whole Spanish Mediterranean coast and test it also in the Atlantic Ocean. By 2018, the number of ports involved will be expanded from 32 to 60 and from 440 trawlers to 770, removing 200 tonnes of marine debris. The Project is helping rid the oceans of rubbish through partnership with the fishing sector and is giving a new life to the collected trash turning it into polyester garments, through a circular economy project.

The Ellen MacArthur Foundation announced and awarded the winners of its Circular Design Challenge with EUR 850,000 (USD 1 million) prize money. The challenge was launched together with the Prince of Wales's International Sustainability Unit and is funded by Wendy Schmidt. Together with a 12-month accelerator programme, the prize money will help scale design solutions that keep plastics in the economy, and out of the ocean. The challenge is part of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation's three-year New Plastics Economy initiative, applying the principles of the circular economy to build a plastics system that works.

Environmental Law Institute announced its continued effort under the ELI Gulf of Mexico Restoration and Recovery Initiative, through which ELI attorneys analyze the variety of restoration funding processes in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and translate them in accessible ways for local stakeholders. This project has been made possible thanks to a generous EUR 468,000 grant from the Walton Family Foundation.

Environmental Law Institute announced as the secretariat of the International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE) EUR 85,000 for the INECE Seaports Training campaign, to provide training on illegal shipments of hazardous and other waste, as well as Ozone Depleting Substances in Kenya, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, in addition to a West African regional training for officials from Senegal, Togo, Benin, and Ghana. In total, over 100 port officials have received training during the last twelve months.

Fourth Element announced its commitment to develop new products from recycled materials and to replace existing materials with recycled polyester from post-consumer plastics such as plastic bottles as well as increasing the range of its products utilising yarn from recycling fishing nets and ropes. It has already developed the Ocean Positive swimwear range, which is made using recycled nylon from "ghost" fishing nets, abandoned or lost by fishing vessels. Fourth Element also announced it will eradicate all forms of plastic in its packaging for all products by 2020.

The GEF announced a EUR 35.9 million (USD 42.3 million) commitment to the MedProgramme to address nutrient pollution in the Mediterranean, enhance region wide environmental monitoring and protect key coastal freshwater resources. The Mediterranean Sea Programme (the MedProgramme): builds on several successful GEF projects in the Mediterranean and on the legal framework provided by the Barcelona Convention and its protocols. The Programme is implemented by the United Nations Environment and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and will increase capacity across the region and result in a reduction of nutrients and chemicals reaching the Mediterranean Sea, which is currently causing coastal ecosystem degradation and potentially affecting the health and quality of life of millions of people in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean. This program consists of several subprojects, including those managed by EIB under the Mediterranean Hotspots Investment Programme (MeHSIP). The MeHSIP aims at assisting promoters with the preparation of projects in the environmental sector that address the main sources of pollution entering the Mediterranean Sea. A USD 7 million GEF contribution will allow MeHSIP to prepare subprojects leveraging an expected implementation value of USD 500 million.

Gestes Propres (founding member of the CLEAN EUROPE NETWORK), in partnership with a number of companies (Ball Packaging, Citeo, Coca-Cola European Partners, Danone Eaux, ELIPSO (plastic packaging industry organisation), Gecina Foundation, Haribo, Heineken, InterEmballage, Nestle Waters, P&G, Total), France and the French Mayors Association, announced to further develop their two awareness campaigns on the impacts litter of marine litter. They committed to reach 1.5 billion views by 2020 with the "You could leave a better footprint on the planet" campaign and involve 400,000 sailboats and 100 ports by 2020 with the "I sail, I sort waste" campaign.

Under the framework of the Intergovernmental Joint Programming Initiative JPI Oceans; Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden, have an ongoing commitment of over 7.5 million EUR on transnational research projects, investigating microplastics in the marine environment. The research will, by 2018, promote the validation and harmonisation of methodologies and protocols for microplastics research, a key concern raised in the respective G7 and G20 Action Plans to Combat Marine Litter.

Kaneka announced that within the coming 3 years they will support the development of PHBH based marine biodegradable applications to reduce the environmental impact of plastic leakage in the ocean. Kaneka will further work-out the industrial scale production of the biodegradable polymer PHBH, a polyhydroxyalkanoate, which is a natural polymer produced by the metabolism of micro-organisms. It will also further study the biodegradation and eco toxicity of PHBH related applications which will be used not only in the marine field but also in other industrial and consumer product.

The Italian National Research Council reaffirmed its commitment to find innovative solutions to prevent microplastic pollution from laundry wastewater at source. It is working to reduce the microplastic release from the washing of synthetic fabrics by fifty per cent by 2020. It will build on the outcome of the Life Mermaids project.

Legambiente ONLUS announced its commitment to promote a ban in the Mediterranean countries on plastic carrier bags below 100 microns (except bags for primary transport) biodegradable and compostable certified EN 13432 or ISO 14855 through at least 30 events, within the campaigns Clean up the Med/spiagge e Fondali Puliti, involving other Mediterranean organizations.

The Lonely Whale Foundation announced its commitment to permanently eliminating 15 billion single use plastic straws by 2020.

Marine Construction Technologies announced the reduction of underwater noise, resulting from impact-driving upon fish, marine mammals, and other sensitive wildlife, by 70-90 per cent per pile. It announced as well the reduction of construction-related noise pollution associated with steel marine foundations worldwide by 15 per cent by 2022.

Marks & Spencer announced that all its plastic packaging in the UK will be 100% recyclable and widely recycled by 2022. It will work to eliminate packaging that strays into the environment (particularly oceans) and actively design out packaging parts that can't be reused or recycled. It will introduce products with reclaimed social plastics as a component, providing positive social benefit to the communities from which the materials are sourced. In addition, M&S will assess the feasibility for all its plastic packaging to be made from one polymer group by 2022 to reduce consumer confusion and to improve recycling.

Mars announced to reach 100% recyclability of its packaging by 2025, with the aim of reducing its carbon footprint over the lifetime.

The National Aquarium announced its commitment to divert at least one million single-use plastic bottles from the waste stream and ultimately the ocean by 2020, while also continuing not to offer single-use plastic bags or plastic straws or any plastic cutlery, and decrease by 50 per cent plastic throughout its operations by 2020.

Ocean Conservancy, the Trash Free Seas Alliance, and Closed Loop Partners, with the support of world leading brands, including Procter & Gamble, 3M, PepsiCo, and plastic makers from the American Chemistry Council and the World Plastics Council, announced the formation of a new initiative to reduce marine debris through improving waste collection, recycling and reuse. The initiative, which will be led by Closed Loop Partners, aims to create a new funding mechanism to raise over EUR 128 million (USD 150 million) over five years to improve waste collection, sorting, and recycling markets in Southeast Asia. The funding mechanism will: catalyse new investments from the private sector, governments and development finance institutions; demonstrate solutions; build a pipeline of bankable waste management infrastructure projects to demonstrate investment viability; and maximize recycling profitability.

OLSPS announced it will develop a global, interactive and educational citizen science tool by 2018 which will enable sea goers, of various skills, to collect and send observational data to a central database. These data will contribute to the mapping of the oceans in terms of wildlife, pollution, vessels and maritime activities, as well as encourage citizens to interact with the oceans and engage with various conservation efforts.

PepsiCo announced its ambition to design 100% of its packaging to be recyclable, compostable or biodegradable, increase recycled materials in its plastic packaging, reduce packaging's carbon impact, and in partnership with the PepsiCo Foundation, work to increase recycling rates by 2025.

Plastic Maker Hubs announced the creation of 25 Plastic Maker Hubs by 2020 where waste pickers convert plastic waste into new products, creating a brand of 'ethical plastics'. The initiative aims to: train 250 women waste pickers by 2020 to become recycling micro-entrepreneurs (foreseen budget of EUR 70,000); build a premium brand or an Open Design Platform around ethical plastic by 2018; develop a recognizable product mark providing assurance of social, environmental and quality standards at global level by 2025.

The Plastic Solutions Fund announced its intention to raise EUR 12.6 million (USD 15 million) over the next three years to combat the problem of single use and other disposable plastic packaging, with EUR 9 million already committed. The Plastic Solutions Fund has been established to support non-profit organizations, particularly in Asia, the European Union and the United States, that want to transform plastics packaging supply chains, reducing not only the amount of this plastic that enters the environment, but the amount that is manufactured in the first place. The Plastic Solutions Fund announced it has given EUR 2.1 million (USD 2.5million) in grants to fifteen organizations since January, ranging in size from EUR 21,000 (USD 25,000) to EUR 421,000 (USD 500,000) per annum.

The Plastic Soup Foundation, Small, Shaping Environmental Action and Plastic Disclosure Project announced the launch of the app "My Little Plastic Footprint". The app will provide individuals from all over the world a better insight into the question of how to reduce their own plastic footprint and take action on marine litter. The app is supported by and part of the Clean Seas Campaign of UNE.

P&G Dish Care announced that will introduce a limited-edition Beach Plastic bottle, with 10 per cent of the resin bottle coming from recovered beach plastic and 90 per cent standard PCR. In partnership with recycling experts at TerraCycle, this innovation will come to the UK in 2018 available at one world's leading retailer. This action is the result of a strategic alliance between Terracycle and will serve to find innovative uses for beach plastic while raising consumer awareness of the ocean plastic issue. This initiative complements P&G's support of the Trash Free Seas Alliance efforts to dramatically reduce the flow of plastic into the world's oceans.

In an effort to send a strong demand signal for recycled resin, P&G Dish brands - the world's #1 selling handwashing liquid - announced it will continue to use 8,000 metric tonnes of recycled plastic per year in its transparent plastic bottles, using an average of 40% Post-Consumer Recycled plastic content across 481 million of our transparent dish care bottles globally. Given the size and scale of P&G Dish Care brands, these efforts will create a demand signal that will help support greater recovery of plastics, while enabling consumers to access recyclable and recycled products every day, without any compromises.

The Port of Civitavecchia announced the continuation of the partnership with the start-up Emersum to collect 100 tons of plastic wastes from the traditional treatment line by 2019, to produce clothes for crew members, passengers of ships as well as port workers and passengers of ships. So far, a first swimwear collection has been sold and other 27,000 meters of green textile are ready to be used by the public and private sector for Green Procurement. For this initiative, EUR 2.5 million will be invested to produce a digital platform to manage and trace the recycling process, compute the environmental footprint and develop new supply chain for eco-products.

Sky announced the removal of all single-use plastics from its operations, products and supply chain by 2020.

Sky announced EUR 30 million over 5 years to create an Ocean Rescue Innovation Fund to develop ideas and technology to stop plastics entering the ocean.

The Surfrider Foundation Europe announced the launch of the #ResetyourHabit campaign. The initiative aims at creating awareness on the impact of single-use water plastic bottles and inspiring people to change their habits by using reusable gourds and canteens; industries to change the design of beverage bottles by preferring high-capacity and refillable containers; private companies and public institutions to use and promote tap water and water fountains.

The Surfrider Foundation Europe, with the support of the Territorial Council of Guipuzcoa, AZTI Tecnalia and Rivages Pro Tech Research Centers, the Syndicat mixte Kosta Garbia, and the municipality of Biarritz, announced the launch of the LIFE LEMA project. The initiative will provide methodological guidance and intelligent tools to local authorities for the effective management of floating marine litter with a cross-border approach whilst promoting the diversification of fishing vessels' economic activities. LIFE LEMA will run until 2019. It entails a total investment of EUR 2.1 million co-financed by the European Union.

Think Beyond Plastic announced a partnership with California State University at Monterey Bay to develop an Innovation Center with a budget EUR 4.25 million (USD 5 million) to accelerate commercialisation of research and innovation with a focus on plastic pollution. This hub will bring together innovators, entrepreneurs, scientists, engineers, businesses, investors and consumer advocates to facilitate a multidisciplinary approach to solving this complex problem. This center will offer growing access to material innovation space for development, characterisation and scalability testing by 2020.

Unilever announced its commitment to help transform global plastic packaging material flows by: ensuring all of its plastic packaging is reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2025; increasing its use of recycled plastic content in its packaging to at least 25% by 2025 (against a 2015 baseline); publishing the full "palette" of plastics materials used in its packaging by 2020 to help create a plastics protocol for the industry; and helping tackle the industry-wide sachet waste issue, by investing in proving, and then sharing with industry, a technical solution to recycle multi-layered sachets - CreaSolv®.

The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), along with the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the International Fund for Animal Welfare, the Natural Resources Defense Council, Southall Environmental Associates and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), reaffirmed their commitment to develop noise reduction targets for individual noise sources. A Working Group will kick-off in 2018 to conduct a Situation Analysis on ocean noise, generating an inventory of primary sources, key industry actors, and best practices. Commitments will be finalised and submitted to the IUCN World Conservation Congress for endorsement as an IUCN Resolution in September 2020.

Zero Waste Europe, a European network of NGOs working with 397 zero waste municipalities, announced the allocation of EUR 300,000 over the next three years to include other 20 cities into the network, thus reducing waste generation by 20% and increasing recycling by 40%.

Zero Waste Europe, in collaboration with the Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives in the Philippines and 9 other partners in South-East Asia, announced the allocation of EUR 300,000 to involve 16 cities in South East Asia to implement a zero waste strategy by 2020, preventing more than 868,000 tons of annual waste from entering the environment and including more than 173,000 tons annually from being released into the environment.

The European Union announced that it will commit EUR 20 million to support the management of marine protected areas in African, Caribbean and Pacific countries through the programme BIOPAMA II (Biodiversity and Protected Areas Management Programme).

The European Union announced that it will invest EUR 1.5 million to analyse ecosystems and economic activity on the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Rio Grande Rise, in order to support the definition of a coherent set of Areas of Particular Environmental Interest.

Argentina announced its Government presented a draft law for the creation of two new marine protected areas. These areas are Yaganes and the extension of Namuncura-Burdwood Bank, which will increase the coastal area to 155,918 square kilometres and constitute the first step to achieve the protection of 10% of these areas.The draft law proposes the creation of the Estricta National Marine Reserve and the Namuncura-Burdwood Bank National Marine Reserve; and the Estricta National Marine Reserve, the Marine National Park and the Yaganes National Marine Reserve. These areas are located in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Argentine Sea. Yaganes contributes 0.23% of the fishing effort at national level and will add more than 69,000 square kilometres to the coastal marine protection; while Burdwood represents 0.81% of the fishing activity with an area of more than 28,000 square kilometres.

Australia announced the building of a tool for the implementation of government policies by 2021 to guide and prioritise the Australian Government's activities to protect the environment. The Australian Government is committed to making ongoing improvements that enhance the currency and usability of this resource and will be exploring how it can make data available more frequently. Australia announced the release of the State of the Environment report as an interactive digital platform which enables decision-makers, researchers and the public to explore, compare, filter and download its findings in a variety of ways. This tool is an important resource for helping to guide and prioritise the Australian Government's activities to protect the environment, including the Marine environment. The Australian Government is committed to making ongoing improvements that enhance the usability of this resource and will be exploring how it can harness the value of making data available more frequently.

Cambodia announced the establishment of Marine Fisheries Management Areas which cover an area of 120 square kilometres in the Kep Province as well as its commitment to combat Illegal, Unreported, Unregulated fishing. Cambodia further reaffirmed its previous commitment to establish its first Marine Protected Area, which covers 405 square kilometres in the waters of the Koh Rong Archipelago.

Canada reaffirmed that it will be hosting an international technical expert workshop on marine other effective area-based conservation measures, February 6-9, 2018 in Montreal, and provide funding of EUR 110,605 (USD 130,000). This technical expert workshop will consolidate scientific and technical information on approaches for assessing the contribution and effectiveness of marine protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, as well as provide scientific and technical advice on the definition and identification of other effective area-based conservation measures for marine and coastal areas. This advice will then be used by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat to inform the development of voluntary guidance on other measures.

Canada announced it has recommended boundaries for the Scott Islands marine National Wildlife Area. The Scott Islands make up one of the most productive and biologically diverse marine ecosystems, particularly for seabirds, on the Canadian Pacific Coast. The Scott Islands support the highest concentration of breeding seabirds in the Canadian Pacific, and are the site of the most intensive seabird research in Canada. The Scott Islands NWA encompasses approximately 11,546 square kilometres of an exclusively marine area that does not include the terrestrial portions of the Scott Islands, which are provincial protected areas.

Chile announced the creation of three new Marine Protected Areas - Juan Fernandez Archipelago, "Seno Almirantazgo" (Tierra del Fuego) and Cabo de Hornos and Diego Ramirez Archipelagos - which will add 620,152 square kilometres to the existing MPAs. With these three new areas almost 46 percent of Chile EEZ will be under protection.

China announced that by 2020 it will implement the "Blue Bay" renovation project in at least 66 bays and adjacent areas, approximately 70% of the coastal water quality meets the excellent or good Grade (I or II Grade) for Chinese National Sea Water Quality Standard.

China announced that it will further strengthen the conservation of the natural coastline, in order to ensuring that the mainland natural shoreline remains at least 35 percent.

Colombia announced the expansion of the fauna and flora Sanctuary of Malpelo by 17,090 square kilometres, increasing its extension from 9,500 to 26,670 square kilometres. With this decision, Colombia is protecting marine ecosystems with high influx of sharks, marine mammals and diversity of fish, whilst conserving the ecosystems associated with the ridges of Malpelo and Yurupari. With the recently declared marine protected areas in the Pacific, Colombia is exceeding the Aichi Target of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the national target for hectares of protected ecosystems, as embedded in the National Development Plan.

Croatia announced the expansion of Jabuka/Pomo Pit Marine Protected Area, the habitat recognised as essential nursery and spawning ground for a number of marine species. With this enlargement, MPAs cover more than 11 per cent of marine waters under national jurisdiction.

Croatia announced that by the end of 2018 it will set up a national monitoring system, including monitoring of marine species and habitats, to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of species and Natura 2000 sites management and will allocate EUR 10 million over five year period.

Croatia announced that during the next 5 years it will implement a management regime of marine resources, which will include spatial and temporal regulations within the inner and territorial waters over the area of no less than 20 percent of its territorial and inner waters.

Croatia announced EUR 13 million over five years for the preparation of detailed marine habitats mapping for waters under national jurisdiction, as the scientific basis for the determination of new marine protected areas in the Adriatic.

France reaffirmed the second expansion of the marine reserve in the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in the Indian Ocean by 1 million square kilometres by 2022, which already includes a buffer zone. This will enable France to reach a total of 32% of French waters classified as Marine Protected Areas by 2022. France also reaffirmed that it will proceed with all stakeholders to manage 22% of its MPAs already established.

France announced it will submit to the Conference of the Parties to the Barcelona convention the proposal to recognize the Parc National des Calanques as a Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance (ASPIM).

France announced its commitment to protect 550 square kilometres of mangroves in its overseas territories by 2020.

France announced its commitment of EUR 400,000 to support the "ACCOBAMS Survey initiative", aiming at establishing an integrated and coordinated monitoring system for cetaceans throughout the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area. The final goal is to improve the conservation status of these species and their habitats through appropriate management, fostering a good status of the marine and coastal environments.

Germany announced the launch of the STRONG High Seas Project this year. Through the support by Germany and contributions from partners, the project will receive EUR 3.9 million over the next 5 years to strengthen regional ocean governance for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ). The Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) will lead the project and together with the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI), BirdLife International, the International Ocean Institute (IOI) -Southern Africa, the Universidad Catolica del Norte (UCN), WWF Colombia, and WWF Germany identify best practices and provide support to regional institutions and national authorities. Working with the Secretariats of the Comision Permanente del Pacifico Sur (CPPS) and the Abidjan Convention, and others it will develop and propose measures to support integrated and ecosystem-based ocean governance in the Southeast Pacific and Southeast Atlantic.

Ghana announced its commitment to complete the assessment of ecologically sensitive areas along the Ghanaian coast and the designation of Ghana's first marine protected area by 2025, to safeguard coastal and marine biodiversity.

Greece reaffirmed its commitment to expand the marine protected areas in its territorial waters from the current 6 per cent to 20 per cent by 2020. With this regard, Greece has already completed an evaluation of 183 areas as prospective additions to the national part of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. 95 of these areas have already been selected for inclusion, either as expansions of existing protected areas or as outright new additions to the network, the vast majority of them being marine or coastal areas. This process aims to preserve important habitats, such as the Posidonia oceanica underwater meadows, as well as important species of birds.

Iceland reaffirmed its commitment to launch a ground-breaking 13-year effort to map the remaining 88% of its Icelandic Economic Exclusive Zone. Two high-tech platforms will be used for the work that will be operating beyond 200 meters using an ultramodern multibeam echosounder technique. The estimated cost of the project is around EUR 26 million (USD 31 million). All data that is made available from the project will be available for use free of charge for non-profit use.

Indonesia announced that it will establish 200,000 square kilometres of conservation areas by 2018 - two years earlier than intended and covering 6.5% of Indonesian waters. Once completed and building on its previous milestone of achieving 100,000 square kilometres in 2009, Indonesia has managed to triple the size of its conservation areas in 12 years - coming from 69.500 square kilometres in 2006.

Indonesia announced it will restore the 18,882 square metres damaged coral reefs in the Dampier Strait off Raja Ampat (West Papua, Indonesia).

Mexico announces the establishment of Revillagigedo National Park of 140,000 square kilometres, protecting the islands and surrounding waters, with a total ban of fishing activities in the area.

Montenegro announced the establishment of a network of marine protected areas with the aim to preserve and, where necessary, regenerate values of marine biodiversity. The procedures for establishing marine nature protected areas should be finalised on at least three locations (e.g. Katic, Platamuni, Ratac) by 2020.

Niue announced that over the next three years 40 per cent of its Exclusive Economic Zone, equal to 127,000 square kilometres, will be declared as a large scale marine protected area. The area will include an offshore biodiverse rich Beveridge Reef (with the highest density of grey reef sharks in the world), a raft of resource rich deep ocean seamounts and the adjacent Territorial seas of Niue. This MPA will be established through the Niue Ocean Wide (NOW) project, a public-private partnership between the Government of Niue (GON) and Tofia Niue (a local non-profit organization) and key collaborating partners including Oceans 5, National Geographic Pristine Seas, and Niue Ridge to Reef project.

Palau announced that it has met its 2020 goal of the Micronesia Challenge through the protection of 30% near shore marine resources.

Palau announced the creation of a Palau National Marine Sanctuary with the aim of working towards closing 80% of its EEZ to commercial fishing by 2020, making it a no-take. The remaining 20% is reserved for the fishing needs of the local population and tourism industry.

Portugal announced it will develop new regulations by 2020 addressing the introduction of marine non-indigenous species to ensure the effective implementation of the Ballast Water Convention.

Portugal announced it will finance EUR 3 million by 2020 to support the upgrade of National Information and Communication Technology Systems on Ocean Environment Management Protection and Economic Activities.

By 2018, Portugal reaffirmed its commitment to create an evaluation and monitoring system of the Blue Fund that is aligned with the SDG 14 targets.

Portugal reaffirmed its commitment for the conservation of at least 14% of coastal and marine areas under national jurisdiction by 2020.

Portugal announced the allocation of EUR 2 million by 2020 to promote and increase the public investment on projects focused on marine biodiversity conservation.

By 2020, Portugal reaffirmed its commitment to promote and support the launch of a marine and maritime research and innovation network, through the establishment of a Port Tech Cluster in Lisbon and the Atlantic Observatory in the Azores, with a focus on both North and South Atlantic (a total investment of EUR 30 million).

Romania reaffirmed its commitment to prepare a national plan to enhance institutional capacities and cooperation with maritime sectors in order to achieve good environmental status in the Black Sea marine region by 2020, notably the protection and preservation of the marine ecosystem.

Spain announced a creation of new Marine Protected Area "Cetacean migration corridor of the Mediterranean" of 46,000 square kilometres (almost 5% of Spanish waters) in the Mediterranean Sea between the coasts of Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands. This MPA will be recognized under the Barcelona Convention. With this new MPA 13% of Spain's marine waters will be under protection.

Spain expressed its will to work on the expansion of the current maritime-terrestrial National Park of the archipelago of Cabrera and the establishment of the first exclusively marine national park in the Hierro Island, Canary Islands, with the consensus of regional and local authorities, and all sectors involved.

Thailand announced that it will establish 14,300 square kilometres of marine protected area (4.4 per cent of its EEZ) by 2020 as part of the implementation of its 5 years action plan on area-based management and conservation measures. The proposed areas include 4 national marine parks (ca. 450 square kilometres), 3 environmental protection areas (570 square kilometres), and many marine and coastal protection areas, i.e. 25 island-groups (6,600 square kilometres) and one large offshore shelf zone (6,700 square kilometres). Thailand also announced its commitment to protect 10 percent of its coastal and marine protected areas by 2030.

H.S.H. Prince Albert II of Monaco announced a commitment of EUR 250,000 to the "Mediterranean MPA Trust Fund" and EUR 200,000 to the "Beyond Plastic Med Initiative" (BeMed) in 2018.

The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) announced EUR 836,000 (USD 1 million) annually for the next five years on its NY Seascape initiative to promote conservation of the marine waters surrounding New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and the Mid-Atlantic, and to develop an urban marine conservation ethic for New York City and beyond. In addition, WCS announced it will incorporate an interactive exhibit to educate and engage visitors on the impacts of plastics in the ocean and undertake personal commitments to reduce single use plastic use, as an integral component of the new Ocean Wonders exhibit to open at the NY Aquarium during the summer of 2018. This will be combined with a digital campaign to promote public policies in New York City to reduce single use plastics.

The Leibniz-Centre of Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) reaffirmed its commitment to bring together scientists from 26 EU Member States to create and coordinate a research network for transdisciplinary research on ocean governance in the EU with the support of a grant of EUR 600,000 from the European COST programme. The network will identify ocean governance challenges in close cooperation with actors and stakeholders and provide integrated advice on governance tools and mechanisms to improve ocean related decision-making focusing on (a) land-sea interactions; (b) area-based management; (c) seabed resources; (d) nutrition security; (e) ocean acidification and climate change; and (f) fisheries governance.

The Nekton Oxford Deep Ocean Research Institute, supported by Kensington Tours, announced a major global scientific collaboration from 2018 to 2021 that aims to create a step change in the knowledge of the Indian Ocean and catalyse its sustainable governance. The Mission consists of six research cruises in six distinct bioregions of the Indian Ocean from West (Mozambique Channel and Seychelles), to Central (Chagos and Maldives) and East (Andaman and Sumatra). The Mission will conclude with a State of the Indian Ocean Summit in November 2021. The Mission combines four major activities linked to clear measurable outcomes to deliver the greatest coordinated impact to accelerate the sustainable governance of the Indian Ocean: Scientific Research, Capacity Development Initiatives, Policy initiatives and Public Engagement and ocean literacy. The Mission will entail EUR 34 million (USD 40 million).

The Nekton Oxford Deep Ocean Research Institute announced a new framework for standardised multi-disciplinary marine research in conjunction with a dozen world leading marine scientists. From ocean physics to chemistry, from pelagic and benthic biology to geophysics, the new framework harnesses all major marine research technologies to support scientists to gather, analyse and publish comparable ocean data at scale and at speed. The Protocol aims to increase scientific productivity and the provision of actionable data that is required to catalyse ocean governance.

Biotherm, through its partnership with Mission Blue, announced up to EUR 300,000 to support a worldwide network of marine protected areas over the next 3 years. Biotherm, through its partnership with Mission Blue, announced EUR 300,000 to support a worldwide network of marine protected areas over the next 3 years.

Saildrone announced that by 2022 it will build a global ocean monitoring network consisting of 1,000 wind and solar powered saildrones providing planetary coverage at a 6x6 degree resolution, endeavouring to significantly reduce the cost of ocean data collection to improve management of sustainable fisheries, carbon cycle, marine pollution and climate change impacts on humanity. To further encourage scientific innovation, every year starting in 2018, Saildrone will award 30 days of saildrone-powered data, equivalent to approximately EUR 842,000 (USD 1 million) of research ship time, to the most impactful research project submitted.

The MAVA Foundation announced a EUR 70 million commitment over the next 5 years to the conservation of marine biodiversity mainly in the Mediterranean Basin and in West Africa for the benefit of people and nature. More specifically, MAVA Foundation will provide EUR 8 million to reduce environmental impacts of plastic pollution and oil and gas activities; EUR 5 million to stimulate a blue economy focusing on coastal infrastructure development; EUR 30 million to support sustainable fisheries for the benefit of local livelihoods and biodiversity; and EUR 27 million to promote MPAs as a tool for protecting marine species, habitats and fish resources.

The Austrian non-profit organization MARE Mundi, along with Dive Together Crete and partners, announced EUR 96,780 for the establishment of a marine field station in Plakias to promote the establishment of a marine protected area in the surrounding coastline by 2021. The station works together with the regional government and local inhabitants around three pillars: education, research and protection.

National Geographic's Pristine Seas Project and Vulcan Inc. - the organization led by philanthropist and Microsoft cofounder Paul G. Allen - announced a marine protected areas enforcement partnership. The first of at least three implementation projects is in collaboration with the Government of Gabon and will focus on combating illegal fishing in their marine protected area network. This partnership leverages Vulcan's emerging illegal fishing intelligence and research service, SkyLight; Gabon's national enforcement capacities; and National Geographic's scientific exploration and story-telling expertise. The project will run for an initial twelve months.

The Oceano Azul Foundation and the Waitt Foundation reaffirmed their commitment to invest at least EUR 1 million in the next three years to help create and implement a network of effectively managed marine protected areas in the Azores archipelago. The project, named Blue Azores, is a partnership between the two foundations, the Portuguese government, regional administrations and different stakeholders and is to include evaluating the economic value of ecosystem services, organising scientific workshops, media and science expeditions, literacy and awareness campaigns and sustainable fisheries actions. The Azores include some of the most important marine habitats in the Atlantic Ocean, including coastal island habitats, the deep sea, seamounts, hydrothermal vents and the open ocean. The islands attract marine megafauna such as whales, dolphins, sharks, mantas, billfishes and tunas, and a hotspot for marine biodiversity.

Aker BioMarine announced EUR 830,000 (USD 1 million) over the next five years to the Antarctic Wildlife Research Fund to further its work on promoting and facilitating research on the Antarctic ecosystem.

The European Union announced that will continue supporting maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea, including through the Gulf of Guinea Inter-Regional Network and the launch of two new programmes: the SWAIMS programme (Support to West Africa Integrated Maritime Security), worth EUR 29 million, and the programme to improving port security in West and Central Africa, worth EUR 8.5 million.

The European Union announced to commit EUR 37.5 million to ensure maritime security and countering piracy along the south-eastern African coastline and in the Indian Ocean. The funds are to be implemented by four regional organisations (IGAD, COMESA, EAC and IOC) in cooperation with UNODC, INTERPOL and FAO. The programme supports alternative livelihood initiatives in the coastal pirate areas of Somalia, investigation capacities at national and regional level, prison reforms, prosecution and judicial capacity, disruption of illegal financial flows, combating money laundering and various other maritime tasks, in addition to a regional mechanism for the coordination and exchange of maritime information.

France announced it will implement a maritime Passenger Name Record (PNR) by summer 2019 to strengthen the monitoring and control of flows which have security implications.

France announced EUR 1,600,000 for its Environmental Security Preventive Measures program in order to address the critical ecological vulnerabilities in the Asia-Pacific Region. Four major projects will be part of this program - a geopolitical observatory of climate change impacts- a lecture series on environmental security- the implementation of a scientific method to establish the current status of the marine ecosystems in the Asia-Pacific region- a scientific initiative to improve the anticipation related to tropical cyclones in this zone.

Indonesia announced the Regional Cooperation Agreement's initiative to address crimes linked to the fisheries sector in the South East Asian Region such as money laundering, tax crime, corruption, human rights abuses, arms trafficking and illicit drugs trafficking

Italy announced the national maritime surveillance operation, Operazione Mare Sicuro, involving in the central Mediterranean Sea up to four Naval Units, airborne patrollers and 700 military personnel, for an overall economic effort of about EUR 84 million to be extended in 2018. The operation will carry out activities of protection and security of the maritime environment, ensuring freedom of navigation and protecting vessels involved in migrant rescue operations.

Italy announced that it will provide Operation EUNAVFORMED Sophia, currently under its command, until December 2018, one Navy unit, up to 200 military personnel and training for Libyan Coast Guard personnel, for an overall economic effort of EUR 43 million. The operation carries out activities countering human trafficking networks in the central Mediterranean Sea.

Italy announced that its Coast Guard will conduct within 2018 the EU-funded feasibility study for the full design of an Interagency National Coordination Centre under the control of the Ministry of Interior and a Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre under the control of the Ministry of Defense. Italy will also provide assistance to the Libyan authorities in providing the Libyan Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre with adequate Standard Operation Procedures.

Italy announced a training program to be carried out within 2018 for up to 140 Libyan Ministry of Interior Coastal Police officers, and will provide up to six patrol boats to the Libyan Coastal Police.

Italy announced that it will support, until December 2018, Operation Atalanta, a EU counterpiracy operation focused on the Horn of Africa, providing the flagship and about 200 military personnel, for an overall economic effort of EUR 26.8 million.

Italy announced that would invest around EUR 1 billion in over the next five years within its development program of satellite systems and applications in Earth Observation and Communication, with particular reference to its COSMO-SkyMed flagship program. The program includes the provision of an enhanced maritime situational awareness platform to improve reaction capabilities in combating cross-border crime, tackling irregular migration and preventing loss of migrant lives at sea, focusing in particular on non-cooperative vessels.

Japan reaffirmed its commitment to disaster risk reduction (DRR) cooperation totalling EUR 3.6 billion (USD 4 billion) and to training of 40,000 personnel by the end of 2018, which includes projects for strengthening disaster risk management, enhancing capacity on weather observation and monitoring for earthquake, tsunami and flood, and earthquake early warming.

The Seychelles announced to develop a National Maritime Security Strategy by 2018.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime announced that they will provide support through the Global Maritime Crime Programme to five member states covering West and East Africa, South Asia and the Caribbean in 2018 in conducting sea operations with the use of satellite imageries to ensure more efficient and specific targeting of unlawful behaviour and crime occurring at sea. These sea operations will increase the maritime law enforcement capacity of those countries by EUR 425,600 and allow for more cost efficient and targeted responses to such activities at sea.

Airbus announced that it is designing, building and will operate an entirely funded new constellation of four Very High-Resolution optical satellites to be launched from mid-2020. This new constellation will enable the growth of its maritime surveillance capacities worldwide in order to become the Primary Commercial Maritime Domain Awareness services operator and system provider. Combining its proprietary-data with all other available maritime sources such AIS, VMS or MetOcean models, Airbus is building on its expertise on big data, machine learning and predictive analysis, in order to support the maritime industry to increase knowledge, anticipate threats, trigger alerts and suspicious behaviour and improve efficiency at sea. Airbus is therefore supporting governments to protect their Exclusive Economic Zone and private companies to secure their fleets against potential threats or source of illegal activities such as illegal fishing, smuggling or piracy.

Iridium Satellite announced its commitment to operate a Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) from 2020. This two-way safety communications system will aid in the coordination of urgent response to ships in distress. It also enables provision of information to ships about the safety of navigation, enabling cleaner and more efficient voyages.

Iridium Satellite announced its commitment to help to protect the marine environment by providing Long-Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) services that can be used for identifying cases of pollution and unlicensed fishing, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications for real-time monitoring of oceanographic data, and related satellite-based services used in tracking marine hazards. In addition, Fisheries Vessel Monitoring Services (VMS) and Electronic Reporting Systems (ERS) will support catch reporting, which plays an important role in combating illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing.

Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT) announced the establishment of a facility of up to EUR 830,000 (USD 1 million) to provide satellite services related to vessel detection. This will enable KSAT to assist agencies working on IUU fishing and threats to maritime security around the world. By combining data from a variety of satellite sensors and delivering the extracted information in near real time, KSAT is able to provide accurate and timely overview reports showing vessel activity across a large area of ocean, particularly highlighting those vessels which may be seeking to evade detection. Interested parties shall take the initiative to request this service.

Oceans Beyond Piracy, along with partner organizations OEF Research and Secure Fisheries have committed EUR 1.6 million (USD 2 million) over the next four years to produce a collaborative annual report an website on maritime security and governance entitled "Stable Seas" (stableseas.org). This annual report is intended to support coastal states in their efforts to counter illicit maritime activity in their waters, reduce violence at sea, and protect ocean resources.

Satlink announced that by 2020 its electronic monitoring software will be extensively enhanced for better fisheries control with image processing and the development of more filters in its video analysis for land-based observers. This will facilitate footage review, including potential discarding situations. It will further develop species' recognition in its satellite echo-sounder buoys to avoid bycatch.

Stop Illegal Fishing, on behalf of the FISH-i Africa Task Force, announced the launch of a programme of VIGILANCE in the Western Indian Ocean. This will be a robust assessment of all industrial fishing vessels licensed to fish by FISH-i members to assess the legality of their identity, history, ownership and management. This is in response to the systematic illegalities and criminal offences identified by FISH-i Africa investigations. This commitment will cover around 500 fishing vessels and will be completed by 2022, and is supported by the FISH-i Africa operational Task Force drawn from the eight member countries of Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia and the United Republic of Tanzania.

Thales Alenia Space and its partners with the support of France announced that they will be investing EUR 26 million over 4 years to support the development of Stratobus - an autonomous stratospheric airship. The first flight of Stratobus is foreseen for early 2021. Stratobus will perform a wide range of missions ranging from (1) the detection of illegal activities such as illegal fishing and illegal ballast water discharge to (2) environmental monitoring such as marine pollution and the detection of harmful algae blooms and (3) maritime security such as search and rescue detection, anti-piracy, smuggling and migration. Various techniques and systems will be used: hyperspectral sensors and a radar/optical/AIS/VDES mission package.

The European Union announced the launch of the Pacific - European Union Marine Partnership (PEUMP) programme, worth EUR 45 million. Sweden announced that it will contribute EUR 10 million to the programme. The purpose of the programme is to support sustainable management and development of fisheries for food security and economic growth, while addressing climate change resilience and conservation of marine biodiversity.

The European Union announced that it commits to further progressing Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements with coastal states. These agreements already assist countries in the development of sustainable fisheries, the effective management of monitoring and control systems and the fight against IUU fishing. The new generation of agreements are to have a more integrated approach, including promoting a sustainable blue economy as well as advancing investment in the fisheries sector. This new approach should allow partner countries to gain more value from the ocean economy in a sustainable manner.

The European Union commits EUR 8.5 million to the preservation of marine and coastal biodiversity in the Caribbean Sea Basin for the benefit of communities that depend on these ecosystems. This action targets in particular natural areas that are threatened by misuse, overexploitation, pollution and climate change effects.

The European Union announced that it will contribute at least EUR 1 million to support the World Bank's Global Fisheries Programme (PROFISH). The aim of the programme is to improve environmental sustainability, human wellbeing and economic performance in the world's fisheries and aquaculture, with a focus on the welfare of the poor in fisheries and fish farming communities in the developing world.

The European Union announced that it will provide nearly EUR 6 million to support projects in EU countries to set up cross-border cooperation on maritime spatial planning. Maritime spatial planning works across borders and sectors to ensure human activities at sea take place in an efficient, safe and sustainable way.

The European Union announced its intention to develop the Pilot Blue Science Cloud, which is to modernise the process of accessing, managing and using marine data, with the goal of improving the handling of large quantities of different marine and maritime data using cloud technologies. Furthermore, the Blue Cloud is intended to further foster work between EU scientists and their international partners. Cloud technologies can improve global and regional ocean observations and forecasting, as promoted in the framework of the G7 Future of the Sea and Oceans initiative and as part of the worldwide effort to build an improved Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

The European Union announced that it is to further strengthen its work on the All-Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance by fostering enhanced cooperation frameworks with Atlantic partners such as Brazil and South Africa on marine science, research and innovation under the Belem Statement, and will allocate over EUR 60 million in the period 2018-2019 to fulfilling this objective. The EU will also continue to implement the ground-breaking Galway Statement on Ocean Research Cooperation with the USA and Canada. The European Union reported that the number of research teams working in international consortia on the challenges facing the Atlantic Ocean will exceed 500 by 2019.

The European Investment Bank (EIB) announced a EUR 92 million (USD 110 million) agreement with the Caribbean Development Bank to support many climate projects across the Caribbean. This loan follows a USD 65 million deal signed in 2011 to help nine projects in seven Caribbean countries. Over the past decade, the EIB has been helping the Caribbean fight problems related to climate change while also improving coastal ecosystems and reducing pollution. This assistance makes economic growth more sustainable in the region and supports the blue economy. These investments are known as Climate Action Framework Loans, meaning they support a wide range of projects. The loans not only help climate change mitigation, but they also support adaptation and resilience projects in energy efficiency, water infrastructure and physical and social infrastructures at community levels.

The European Investment Bank (EIB) announced to invest up to EUR 16.7 million (USD 20 million) in the Sustainable Ocean Fund to help fisheries, aquaculture, the seafood supply chain and coastal development, mainly in Latin America, Africa and Asia. The EIB is using its Climate Action and Environmental Facility for this financing. This facility is dedicated to projects that address climate change mitigation and adaptation as well as biodiversity and environment protection.

The European Investment Bank (EIB) announced a EUR 30 million loan agreement to the Amadeite Group, a French mid-cap company Amadeite - a pioneer in the field of marine biotechnology. The company develops algae-based health and nutrition solutions for animals, plants and humans, which help to limit the proliferation of algae and reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilisers and antibiotics. Growth in algae hurts coastal environments as well as tourism. The loan is backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments. This fund was started by the EIB and the European Commission to increase investment in areas such as digital technology, transport, renewable energy and innovation.

Australia announced EUR 10 million for the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), launched in 2006 as a national collaborative research infrastructure. IMOS routinely operates a wide range of observing equipment throughout Australia's coastal and open oceans, making all of its data accessible to the users.

Australia announced EUR 2 million (AUD 3 million) for the Blue Economy Challenge and "Aquacelerator" accelerator program to support the aquaculture industry, develop local economies across the Indian Ocean region and connect inspiring innovators with the networks capable of turning their ideas into reality.

Belgium announced the revision of its national marine spatial plan for the Belgian part of the North Sea. This revision is undertaken in order for the plan to be as up-to-date as possible and to ensure the coordination of decisions having a spatial impact on the Belgian marine waters with all stakeholders.

The Cook Islands announced to become 100% reliant on renewable energy by 2020. They have already achieved their target of 50% since 2015.

Denmark announced they will develop its first maritime spatial plan through collaboration in the public sector and with involvement of the private sector and other relevant stakeholder groups. With the release of the first draft plan in 2019, expected benefits will include promotion of blue growth through greater clarity on future sustainable development and distribution of marine space and resources among existing and emerging markets and activities.

France announced its commitment to double the current volume of blue economy activities to EUR 104 billion and bring the number of jobs up to 600,000 over the next ten years. To support this objective, France has developed a method, based on a public-private partnership involving public authorities and the private sector.

France reaffirmed its commitment to develop a national strategy combining the implementation of the EU marine framework directive and the EU maritime spatial planning directive, reflecting and reconciling both environmental and economic development strategies along each of their four maritime facades.

France announced that it will ratify the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Fishing Vessel Personnel (STCW-F) by 2019. This is part of France's commitment to improve working conditions and training in the shipping and fisheries sectors.

Indonesia announced EUR 85 million in support of the establishment of an Archipelagic and Island States Forum to strengthen cooperation among Archipelagic and Island States on the issue of blue economy, and climate adaptation.

Indonesia announced a commitment of EUR 85,000 to develop several Special Integrated Blue Economic Development Zones. These projects will promote sustainable development through different initiatives based on blue economy principles. This will be related to its EcoPort project. Indonesia also announced that it will develop 200 fisher's villages and 416 fisheries port.

Ireland announced its commitment to invest EUR 1 million over the period 2018-2021 into R&D to help ensure future food and nutrition security and the sustainable supply for other high-added-value chains and products such as bioenergy, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics from algae.

Ireland announced EUR 1 million funding towards research vessel ship time per annum from 2018-2021 to activities agreed under the Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance (AORA) - Galway Statement implementation, notably seabed mapping & ocean observation. Data from these activities will be open access.

Ireland announced that it will invest EUR 4 million per annum to a world class programme of seabed mapping (INFOMAR). Ireland has to date committed some EUR 50 million to this programme. This data feeds directly into the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNnet) and helps support AORA.

Malta announced the establishment of a new government body, with the remit of studying, protecting, preserving, managing and educating on the country's rich underwater cultural heritage with a budget of EUR 1.6 million over 3 years.

Malta announced the launch of the Small States Centre of Excellence that will provide practical support to government administrations of small states to attain the Sustainable Development Goals under Agenda 2030. The Centre will provide relevant knowledge based tools, practical solutions and share best practices to leverage a collective synergy, catalysing the development of small states in the context of their individual limited resources. This will be done primarily through the use of the Internet and online based services. The website will be designed around the universally-accepted UN SDG Knowledge Platforms, particularly SDG goal 14.1 and 14.2 (marine pollution and marine protected areas).

Mauritius reaffirmed its commitment to elaborate by 2021 a Marine Spatial Plan for the maritime zones of Mauritius to sustainably and effectively manage the conflict of uses in its waters.

Mauritius announced it will launch in 2018 an ocean data management project to improve data accessibility and provide a temporal and spatial perspective for the sustainable development of the ocean and its resources. The project is expected to complete in 2022 and is part of a substantial effort to harmonise and standardise ocean data so as to allow dissemination to the largest community possible.

Portugal announced it will increase by 2020 funding of deep-sea scientific research, including on seabed mining, with the creation of the Atlantic Observatory (based on the Azores) and the participation on the JPI Oceans Initiative.

Portugal reaffirmed its commitment to develop Maritime Spatial Plans (MSP) by 2020, covering the entire area under Portuguese jurisdiction and using ecosystem-based approaches.

Spain announced its commitment to develop and boost the sustainability of the blue economy by (1) financing at least 20 projects per year on this issue, (2) engaging 10,000 volunteers in coastal areas for clean-ups, (3) creating a national citizen science marine program, (4) supporting 1,000 entrepreneurs and (5) fostering the creation of 100 new enterprises and business lines linked to the blue economy framework. Lastly, different awareness raising actions on the marine protected areas' value will be carried out to reach 7 million Spanish (15% of Spanish population) by 2024.

The United States announced that it has provided a 50% loan portfolio guarantee to Althelia's Sustainable Ocean Fund through USAID's Development Credit Authority for up to EUR 42 million (USD 50 million) in private debt investments in sustainable fisheries, supply chain improvement, and marine conservation. The Fund plans to invest in 10-20 sustainable businesses and organizations throughout Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The capital provided will help businesses create operational and behavioral change for sustainable fisheries activities, which will generate long-term revenue streams for those involved in the fishing industry and help improve coastal ecosystems.

The United States announced a partnership with the Walton Family Foundation to jointly support long-term conservation work in the biologically-rich Bird's Head Seascape area of the West Papua and Papua provinces of Indonesia through an anticipated EUR 4.2 million (USD 5 million), three-year grant to the Blue Abadi Fund. This fund will link various donors with the government of Indonesia.

The region of West Sweden (Region Vastra Gotaland) announced that it has joined forces with local maritime business and research in a maritime cluster to strengthen the region's blue economy. The purpose of the cluster is to increase innovation and business development in the maritime sector through increased contact and collaboration. The cluster is to support marine governance, maritime operations and technology, marine biotechnology, marine energy, seafood and maritime tourism and recreation and is part of the regional action plan for a sustainable maritime sector. The action plan runs until 2019 and has an indicative budget of EUR 5.3 million (SEK 54 million).

FAO announced to invest more than EUR 422,000 (USD 500,000) through at inter-regional TCP called the Blue Hope Project that will initially involve 3 coastal countries along the Mediterranean (Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey) under its Blue Growth Initiative. The project will focus on building coastal community resilience through improved technical capacity among government agencies and communities to sustainably manage their coastal resources, especially inshore fisheries, thus improving their food security and their livelihood opportunities as well as their capacity to respond to drivers of change such as climate and migration.

IOC-UNESCO reaffirmed its commitment to dedicate EUR 3,815,564 (USD 4.5 million) for implementing two key initiatives for strengthening Coastal and Marine Ecosystem-based management through knowledge and information tools by March 2021: (i) With the support of the GEF the project "Strengthening Global Governance of Large Marine Ecosystems and Their Coasts through Enhanced Sharing and Application of LME/ICM/MPA Knowledge and Information Tools" or LME:Learn at a global scale; (ii) With the support of the Government of Flanders, Kingdom of Belgium the project "Implementation of an integrated approach to coastal and marine ecosystems for sustainable blue growth in the Southeast Pacific" or SPINCAM3 at regional scale. The objective of these two initiatives is to develop a harmonized coastal and marine environmental management framework for the beneficiary countries and large marine ecosystems, thereby providing the right tools to apply the ecosystem approach in their national waters, while also providing a foundation for planning sustainable economic development (blue growth) through inter-institutional capacity-building, which will translate into concrete recommendations and strategies at the regional level.

The forty-three Union for the Mediterranean countries announced the launching of the Virtual Knowledge Centre (VKC) on Blue Economy, as a regional networking platform on marine and maritime affairs, with a view to consolidating the Mediterranean Blue Economy community by the end of 2018.

The World Bank announced a total of EUR 296 million (USD 352.5 million) over the next six years to advance the sustainable oceans and Blue Economy agenda in developing countries. This includes EUR 102 million (USD 121.4 million) to improve the management of fisheries in the South West Indian Ocean region (Madagascar, Seychelles, Maldives and the Indian Ocean Commission), with co-financing from the Global Environment Facility and Japan; EUR 34 million (USD 40 million) to innovate fisheries and aquaculture value chains in Peru; EUR 126 million (USD 150 million) for Vietnam to enhance coastal resilience; EUR 20 million (USD 23.6 million) for the Marshall Islands to strengthen early warning systems, support climate resilient investments in shoreline protection, and assist with crisis and emergency responses; EUR 15 million (USD 17.5 million) to improve solid waste management in the Maldives; and technical assistance (with financial support from Denmark) to help Indonesia develop an action plan to reduce marine plastic pollution.

Althelia Ecosphere, Aviva Investors, the BPCE Group, the European Investment Bank, Seventure Partners, Willis Towers Watson and the World Bank announced their participation in a partnership to support the development of a sustainable blue economy. Contributing towards this goal, they agreed to develop a set of sustainability principles that will guide investment and financing decisions in the 'blue economy', with a view to announcing these principles in 2018. They are also willing to engage with other financial institutions and economic players to promote this partnership. This partnership is supported by the European Commission, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Prince of Wales's International Sustainability Unit.

Calysta is an innovator in sustainable products for the aquaculture industry. FeedKind® protein is a safe, natural, sustainable and traceable ingredient that provides a healthy alternative to wild catch-derived fishmeal. Calysta reaffirmed that annual production of FeedKind® protein will reach 20,000 tons by 2019 and 200,000 tons by 2024 without negatively impacting agricultural or water resources on land. Increased use of this type of feed in aquaculture can reduce fishing pressure on wild fish, leaving them to support the oceans natural ecosystems.

Conservation International announced that they are developing a Blue Accelerator Fund, an investment vehicle designed to support enterprises operating within the marine fisheries, aquaculture, marine tourism, and other ocean-related industries. Impact finance has the potential to accelerate and scale conservation outcomes, but is limited by the 'investment readiness' of enterprises which often lack key technical capacities, operational maturity, or sufficient commercial track record. The Accelerator Fund will address this gap by providing critical bridge financing and linking enterprises with investors, technical expertise, and markets for sustainable products and services. The Accelerator Fund aims to unlock larger-scale private capital investment by working with partners from initiation to exit, and will support protection of natural capital stocks and sustainable livelihoods in these critical sectors.

The Natural Capital Coalition and Conservation International announced they are building a coalition of organisations to produce an Oceans Supplement to the Natural Capital Protocol - an established framework for businesses to evaluate their impacts and dependencies on nature - by 2018. The Supplement will help a diverse set of companies to assess how their businesses depend on healthy oceans, identifying cost savings, new business lines, and improved access to financing; anticipating regulatory changes; and aligning with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. This process will receive inputs from corporate, finance, civil society and government partners, as well as leaders from ocean-based initiatives. The Coalition, which evolved from the TEEB for Business Coalition, is a diverse partnership of almost 250 organizations including businesses such as Dow Chemicals, Skanska, and Walmart. Total resources of EUR 800,000 (USD 960,000) are needed to successfully deliver this project. In-kind resources of EUR 250,000 (USD 300,000) have already been committed.

DNV GL announced, in line with its vision of "Global impact for a Safe and Sustainable future", to address global aquaculture challenges related to competition for space, fish health and welfare, feed efficiency and environmental concerns by funding a dedicated research program of EUR 1 million for sustainable aquaculture, in co-operation with the industry. Their research will focus on how a digital transformation can make aquaculture more sustainable by providing advanced insight into both technical and biological performance. DNV GL also announced to make the main results of this research program publicly available by the end of 2018.

Environmental Law Institute announced a research project on assessing legal options for the use of next generation sequencing and environmental DNA for conducting environmental impact assessments of open water aquaculture facilities and deep seabed mining operations, in cooperation with the University of Geneva. The project is developed with a EUR 50,000 grant from the Swiss Network for International Studies.

HAROPA, the alliance of ports of Le Havre, Rouen and Paris announced the commitment to improve its waste management and circular economy strategy by 2020, by ensuring the removal of all floating wastes from its ports and by establishing in the new fluvial Platform of the Port of Paris in Acheres a sustainable logistic chain through waterway (instead of road). Being part of the Great Paris project, the chain aims to carry between 15 and 20 million cubic meter of building materials and building wastes.

Under the framework of the Intergovernmental Joint Programming Initiative JPI Oceans; Germany, Norway, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands, announced to commit to a second phase of research funds of approximately EUR 7 million in 2018 and to provide ship time to study the impacts of marine mineral mining. This research will advance the scientific knowledge on deep-sea ecosystems, providing a scientific basis for assessing of the environmental impacts and risks of future seabed mineral extraction and continue to inform the establishment of a framework of best environmental practices for the management of potential seabed mining operations under the auspices of the International Seabed Authority.

Under the framework of the Intergovernmental Joint Programming Initiative JPI Oceans; Germany, Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey, South Africa in partnership with the European Commission (via its Research and Innovation Programme H2020), announced to commit research funding of up to EUR 30 million to marine and maritime technology development in a first call. In 2018 the partnership, "MarTERA", will fund the development of environmentally friendly maritime technologies, novel materials and structures, sensors, automation, monitoring and observations, advanced manufacturing and production, safety and security.

Under the framework of the Intergovernmental Joint Programming Initiative JPI Oceans 17 European countries announced, to have the ambition to commit at least EUR 30 million in partnership with the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme by 2019 to fund research and innovation that will support the development of a sustainable and climate-friendly blue bioeconomy, targeting zero waste, production, harvest and exploitation of aquatic biomass for use in food and other bio-based value chains.

LAGOSTA announced its commitment to use new feed formulations containing algae and insects for its spiny lobster cultivation by mid-2018 in order to reduce wild marine protein source for growing its spiny lobsters.

LAGOSTA announced it will develop by 2019 a program to extract chitin and chitosan from the spiny lobsters raised in aquaculture. These bioactive ingredients present exceptional chemical and biological qualities that can be used in many industrial and medical applications, including cartilage tissue engineering, orthopaedic applications, antibacterial agent, adjuvant for vaccines, skin regenerative properties, bio surgery and ophthalmology, drug delivery and cell therapy.

Oceans X Labs, a joint initiative of WWF and Conservation X Labs, announced the commitment to identify, incubate, and accelerate 50 new innovative products over the next year starting in the areas of aquaculture, fisheries, and engineering resilience to climatic changes. These products would transform ocean conservation, with an improvement in performance, cost, scalability and sustainability of ten times compared to the past. The initiative aims that at least five innovations (10% of the total) receive follow-up investment, become profitable or get acquired in the first three years.

The Maritime Alliance announced a commitment of EUR 84,000 (USD 100,000) over the next 12 months to develop workforce development materials, produce job profile videos, and launch a Blue Jobs website to inform youth and their parents about jobs in the growing Blue Economy. The Maritime Alliance also announced that in partnership with the BlueTech Cluster Alliance, 9 leading BlueTech clusters in 7 countries, it has embarked on a capacity building effort that will work with at least two developing countries to organize clusters in 2018.

The Nature Conservancy announced that it will continue its work on innovative finance for the oceans. Following its successful model in the Seychelles, the Nature Conservancy is developing debt conversion programs including in the Caribbean, with an expectation to close new transactions in 2018. Financed by a Blue Bond with impact capital raised from private investors, and supported by credit guarantees, these efforts would target more than 200,000 square kilometres of new MPAs and upwards of USD 200 million in funding for their management and adaptation to climate change. Furthermore, The Nature Conservancy will actively explore new opportunities in regions such as the Indian and Pacific Oceans to leverage these financing solutions at a global scale.

The Nature Conservancy announced an investment of EUR 16.8 million (USD 20 million) until 2022 to map the value of the oceans. Measuring value is crucial for stakeholders to understand how much they depend on ocean health, and thus to encourage appropriate management strategies.

The Nature Conservancy announced the development of an insurance product to protect a 30 KM long coral reef along the Mexican coast. The reef plays a key role in ensuring sustainability in the Mexican tourism sector. According to the Nature Conservancy, at least 102 nations and territories depend on coral reefs for income e.g. tourism and/or for protection e.g. from floods and tidal waves.

Naval Energies announced that the world's first tidal turbine plant in Cherbourg will be operational in 2018 and will create 40 direct jobs, embodying the start of the industrial phase of ocean energies. With a maximum production capacity of 25 turbines per year, the future plant will ensure the assembly and maintenance of pre-commercial and future commercial arrays in France. It will also operate as an industrial base for other pre-commercial projects around the world.

Naval Energies announced that it is committed to deploy up to 35 tidal turbines by 2020, in Canada, Japan, France, Ireland and the United Kingdom, representing 70MW. These first arrays will be a clear milestone in the development of the tidal energy technology and launch the commercial roll-out of the marine renewable energies sector. That will contribute to reach EU targets for renewable energy production.

Naval Energies announced that it will also continue to develop sustainable ocean energy solutions for Islands energy security, investing in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) to produce non intermittent marine renewable energy for tropical regions and offshore floating wind for extreme sea conditions. Naval Energies is committed to carry out OTEC projects in French overseas territories (Martinique, la Reunion, Tahiti, Mayotte), Caribbean Islands and South East Asia.

Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd (RCL) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) announced a new partnership on ocean conservation, grounded in ambitious and measurable sustainability targets. As a result of this partnership, RCL will by 2020 reduce by 35 percent its greenhouse gas emissions from a 2005 baseline; increase the procurement of sustainable seafood certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (to 65% by 2020) and Aquaculture Stewardship Council (to 75% by 2020); offer education to its 60,000 crew members and 5 million guests on ocean conservation; and offer 1,000 tours certified to the Global Sustainable Tourism Council standard to consumers visiting RCL's 500 worldwide ports of call. This partnership will also support the development and implementation of sustainable tourism guidelines for shark and ray tour operators as well as community-based whale shark ecotourism in Donsol, a Philippines coastal village.

SeaEurope, the European maritime technology industry sector, announced the launch of a 4 years campaign from June 2018 to deploy, demonstrate and promote on-board and on-shore ballast water treatment solutions. With EUR 500 million of investment, the campaign aims to promote the implementation of the IMO Ballast Water Convention earlier than in 2024, by showcasing industry's early movers and virtuous conduct. Although the campaign has a worldwide reach, in 2018-2019 it will focus on the EU sea basins. The development of the campaign will be monitored through Key Performance Indicators such as number of systems retrofitted and volumes of untreated ballast water discharged averted from existing ships.

The Sustainable Oceans Alliance (SOA) announced EUR 4.27 million (USD 5 million) for the launch of the SOA Ocean Solutions Accelerator, a global program created to help young entrepreneurs build and scale ocean-focused start-up companies. The program will give young entrepreneurs access to skill-building workshops, funding opportunities, introductions to field experts, partners, mentors, and investors, as well as a platform to showcase their ventures on a global scale.

The World Ocean Council announced that it will develop a cross-sectoral marine industry leadership alliance for the Mediterranean - the Blue Economy Leadership Alliance for the Mediterranean Sea. The WOC will provide as of 2019 the secretariat EUR 84,500 (USD 100,000).

The Yacht Club Costa Smeralda (YCCS) announced the launch of One Ocean under the high patronage of Princess Zahra Aga Khan. One Ocean Forum aims at becoming a driving force for local and international initiatives related to ocean sustainability engaging stakeholders from different backgrounds. One Ocean Forum will become a regular yearly event, with one concrete outcome Charta Smeralda which will commit signatories to identify actions to minimise impacts on the marine environment, and propose solutions to ocean issues.

The European Union has committed EUR 15 million under the PESCAO programme for the improvement of regional fisheries governance in Western Africa with the aim of developing a regional fishing policy, putting in place a regional coordination against illegal unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing and improving fish stock management at regional level.

Australia announced EUR 204,000 (USD 240,000) to create a bilingual web-based tool to improve fish identification and fisheries monitoring. Available in 2020, the tool will have a wider South-East Asian application. All fisheries monitoring programs require accurate fish identification and fisheries assessments routinely rely on fish catch data, as recorded by port-based enumerators and/or on-board observers.

Australia announced EUR 2.8 million (USD 3.29 million) for a four-year investment to increase capacity in Pacific island countries (PICs) to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the region. The Niue Treaty Subsidiary Agreement (NTSA) is a multilateral treaty to strengthen fisheries management and provide for more cost-effective and efficient maritime surveillance in the Pacific region. Currently the NTSA has ten parties and entered into force on 30 July 2014. This project will support PICs through the early technically-demanding stages of ratification and implementation of the NTSA by: (i) enhancing regional information sharing and cooperation; (ii) supporting risk-responsive tasking of assets; and (iii) increasing capacity to undertake enforcement operations.

Australia announced EUR 238,000 (USD 280,000) for "A New Song for Coastal Fisheries - Pathways to Change" (New Song), addressing coastal fisheries management, a new approach developed with Australia's DFAT funding in 2015. The main aim is to strengthen the regional community-based ecosystem approach to fisheries management (CEAFM) as outlined in the "New Song" strategy, while ensuring communities have a voice in this process at all levels. The project aims to empower and proactively engage communities through better representation and coordination of CEAFM assistance utilising mechanisms that facilitate a coordinated region-wide approach. The project will work closely with partners and NGOs to strengthen existing networks for gathering and sharing information on "who is doing what where", and then map this out in collaboration with the partners.

Chile announced the creation of National Committee to Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (IUU). This Committee aims to strengthen and coordinate Chile's responsibilities as a coastal, port, flag and market State to combat illegal fishing activities and improve the co-ordination among relevant stakeholders for the development of mid-term action plans. This Committee is chaired by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and includes all public institutions related to the fishing industry, coastal communities and ocean activities.

The French region of Brittany announced that it has partnered with science and industry to support the EU Common Fisheries Policy objective of achieving of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) for fisheries by 2020 at the latest. With a budget of EUR 2.2 million until 2019 the partnership is to reduce unwanted catches and minimise the impact of fishing gear on the marine environment. Measures include the testing of better selective gear on board commercial vessels to reduce discards. Furthermore, the partnership is to carry out research and share best practices on the survival of Norway lobsters caught in the trawl fishery. Finally, the partnership is analysing the impact of dredges on the rich Maerl beds around Brittany in order to improve management measures.

Mauritius announced it will launch in 2018 an assessment of all the fishing vessels (including purse seiners and long liners operating in the region) operating in the waters of the Indian Ocean Commission States in order to study their identity, history, ownership and activities. With a view to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing. Project's completion is expected in 2021. The data will be assessed and a report will be prepared with recommendations on means to combat effectively IUU fishing in waters of the Member States of the Indian Ocean Commission.

The Government of Myanmar announced its commitment to develop a marine spatial plan by 2021; it should cover approximately 485,000 square kilometres of Myanmar's exclusive economic zone. The plan foresees developing further the Myanmar's marine protected area network, providing support to sustainable fisheries, as well as ensuring the development of a sustainable blue economy for all marine stakeholders.

The Government of Nicaragua announced that it is implementing the Resource management plan for the Queen Conch (pink snail strombus gigas) as of 2018. Catch quotas on production for the industrial and artisanal sector will be established, as well as quotas for commercialisation of the finished product. The Government of Nicaragua also announced that a proposal of a Nicaraguan Caribbean lobster management plan is being developed.

Nicaragua announced that by 2018 it will have its fisheries for lobster espinosa panulirus argus MSC certified (via traps).

Norway announced its support to a project to be implemented by FAO to enhance awareness of governments and other stakeholders at global, regional and national level on the contribution of small-scale fisheries to food security and poverty reduction. The project also aims to improve technical and organizational capacities related to small-scale fisheries in developing countries. The support will consist of up to NOK 23 million - approximately EUR 2.5 million - and run for several years.

Palau announced that through public-private partnership, it will open the first regional center for maritime surveillance in 2018 to address Illegal Un-reported Unregulated (IUU) fishing.

Portugal announced the reduction of by-catches and discards from fisheries by 2023.

Spain announced an annual financial support of EUR 50,000 FAO Global record until 2022.

Spain announced its commitment to preserve the artisanal fisheries sector and its ecological benefits in marine reserves. In order to achieve that, Spain will allocate EUR 150,000 in 2018 to continue to study the effects of Climate Change in marine reserves which play a crucial role as a tool for the conservation of biodiversity and fisheries management.

Sweden announced the allocation of EUR 10 million (SEK 100 million) over the next five years into the Pacific-European Union Marine Partnership Programme (PEUMP). The aim of the Programme is to support 15 members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (PACP) states in improving the sustainable management and development of fisheries for food security and economic growth, while addressing climate change and conservation of marine biodiversity.

Thailand announced its commitment to participate in the Global Record of Fishing Vessels, Refrigerated Transport Vessels and Supply Vessels (global record) by 2018 to support the global implementation of Port State Measures. Thailand will make information available on its fishing fleets and enter it into the Global Record Database. Thailand also announced that it has entered into a progressive and technical cooperation with the Seafood Task Force and Ocean Mind to support safe and sustainable seafood as well as to prevent the entry of fish and fishery products from IUU (Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated) fishing activities into the supply chain; Thailand using new tools for a strict enforcement of Port State Measures.

Thailand announced that it has initiated cooperation on improving fisheries management and combating IUU fishing with ASEAN Member States through the development of ASEAN Common Fisheries Policy. Through the ASEAN Sectoral Working Group on Fisheries mechanism, Thailand aims to finalize the elements to be included in the Policy within 2019. The Policy will strengthen ASEAN collective efforts for sustainable and responsible fisheries and food security.

Thailand announced that it will ratify and implement related ILO Conventions including Convention no. 188 on Work in Fishing to ensure labour standard at sea and that migrant workers are not at risk of harm.

The United States announced a partnership with the Walton Family Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to jointly launch a Seafood Alliance for Legality and Traceability (SALT) with USAID awarding a EUR 4.4 million (USD 5.3 million) five-year cooperative agreement. This multi-stakeholder alliance of government, business, and civil society will facilitate knowledge exchange, innovation, and action to promote legal, sustainable fisheries by enhancing the ability to trace seafood supply chains. The Fisheries Agency of Japan announced its intent to participate in the SALT design process, bringing its leadership and expertise in fisheries management to this process.

The United States announced EUR 4.2 million (USD 5 million) for a program to combat forced labor and human trafficking on fishing vessels in the Asia-Pacific region. The project will work in two countries in the region and focus on two key outcomes. First, it will improve enforcement to combat labor exploitation, including forced labor and human trafficking, on fishing vessels through strengthened government regulations and policies, improved coordination within government interagency task forces, and increased use of multi-disciplinary inspections that mainstream inspection for labor exploitation. Second, it will combat forced labor on fishing vessels through improved understanding of acceptable conditions of work and indicators of labor exploitation, improved ability to report exploitative working conditions, and improved access to remedy of exploitative working conditions on fishing vessels.

The United States announced the fourth annual Fishackathon, a public-private partnership with HackerNest for a weekend coding contest to address sustainable fishery challenges. Hundreds of technologists and entrepreneurs around the world will spend February 10-11, 2018, competing to build practical tech solutions to endemic problems defined by fisheries experts. For more information, and to see the winning submissions after the event, visit Fishackathon.co.

FAO reaffirmed the commitment made at the UN Ocean conference to strengthening fisheries governance and States' capacities to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing by providing EUR 11.8 (USD 14 million) by 2023 in technical support to developing States Parties. This will be achieved through a combination of global and regional programmes, national projects and ad hoc country level assistance executed by FAO in partnership with concerned stakeholders, funded through the FAO regular programme and voluntary contributions from States and other partners.

FAO announced to commit mobilizing an additional EUR 2.5 million (USD 3 million) through FAO regular programme and voluntary contributions from States and other partners by 2020 to upscale its work with member countries, small-scale fisheries actors and other partners to raise awareness, strengthen institutional capacities, empower small-scale fisheries organizations, generate and share knowledge, support policy reform and provide technical assistance to support the implementation of FAOs the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SFF Guidelines) at global, regional and national level.

FAO reaffirmed its commitment made at the UN Ocean conference, to spend an extra EUR 295,250 (USD 350,000) to ensure that trade contributes towards the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals by reinforcing the multilateral trading system and ensuring that trade policies and strategies are coherent with other enabling national policies. Funding will be used to convene three separate regional SIDS workshops on fish trade in 2018 - Pacific, Caribbean and AIMS, to keep SIDS in the three regions informed on current processes and outcomes underway to reach a positive outcome on fisheries subsidies, on trade governance and regulatory framework issues necessary for effective fish trade.

The ILO announced EUR 1.5 million (USD 1.8 million) in 2018 to implementing projects to combat unacceptable forms of work and human trafficking in the fishing and seafood industry, including the Global Action Programme against forced labour and trafficking of fishers at sea (GAPfish), and to mobilise resources for new ones.

The General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean of the FAO (GFCM) announced EUR 19.56 million (USD 23 million) by 2020, under its Mid-term strategy towards the sustainability of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries to help implement requirements of SDG 14 and the 2030 Agenda. These funds will help reverse the trend of overexploitation of Mediterranean's iconic marine species, strengthening scientific advice for management while supporting the livelihoods of coastal communities. In addition, by investing in technological advances that level the playing field (regional VMS and control system), FAO will help countries implement effective port State measures to curb IUU fishing, and support mitigation of unwanted fisheries-ecosystem interactions through bycatch and discard reduction programmes.

Carrefour announced that half of all fish that it sells (both wild and farmed) will come from sustainable sources by 2020. To fulfil this commitment, Carrefour is working with its suppliers to select fish from healthy stocks, promote more selective catching methods, develop sustainable aquaculture by reducing antibiotics and using non GMO feed, and fight illegal fishing.

The Center for Oceanic Awareness, Research, and Education (COARE) reaffirmed the expansion of Shark Safe certification programme (www.sharksafe.org), which uses an easily recognisable logo to endorse restaurants and select businesses that distinguish themselves through their manifest dedication to shark conservation. In 2018, the number of currently available languages on www.sharksafe.org will be increased from three to a minimum of six and will engage an increasing number of domestic businesses in each category of the Shark Safe Certification programme. By June 2020, the certification programme will expand to at least three more countries.

Conservation International reconfirmed its partnership with the Costa Rican Ministry of Security, the National Coastguard Service, and partner Satellite Applications Catapult/OceanMind to address illegal fishing in Costa Rica and across the region. Over the past 18 months, these partners have cooperated closely to generate the first complete baseline of the purse-seining fleet's operations in Costa Rica's EEZ. The study monitored more than 5,000 vessels, 99 of which were fishing vessels. 102 possible illegal activities carried out by 19 fishing vessels were observed. Together with the national authorities, CI is following up 17 cases associated with these vessels. In 2018, CI will continue working with Costa Rican authorities to follow-up on potential cases of illegal fishing and to further improve the country's information base and share the results across the Eastern Tropical Pacific countries of Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador, to promote international cooperation in addressing illegal fishing activities in the region.

Earth Twine, a collaborative technology company that works to create and bridge leading edge technologies into traditional food supply distribution, announced the launch of the Earth Twine Blockchain Solution. This system developed specifically for the seafood industry is dedicated to sustainable seafood-oceans. It validates origin and production information of seafood by integrating smart contracts.

EcoHub announced it will launch the mFish initiative in Malaysia, Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Maldives in their local languages, with the intent of capturing more than 100,000 users. mFish provides mobile services to small-scale fishermen in developing nations through the mFish application. mFish is provided to fishermen at $0 cost of data through Facebook's Free Basics platform, and allows them to access market and weather information and more easily report catch documentation for the purpose of traceability and fisheries management.

Environmental Law Institute announced a project to research ways to strengthen indigenous rights to fish and food sovereignty, as well as co-management models for fisheries security in Inuit communities in the Arctic, equipped with a EUR 158,000 grant from the National Science Foundation.

Environmental Law Institute announced that, during 2018 and 2019, it will develop a guide to help environmental impact assessment practitioners better estimate the economic and sociocultural impact of fisheries regulatory reforms on fishing communities in the United States. The project has been made possible thanks to a EUR 64,700 grant from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The GEF announced a total of EUR 19 million (USD 22.3 million) investments in fisheries. This included EUR 1.45 million (USD 1.7 million) investment in fisheries in the Caribbean to be implemented by FAO and EUR 5.36 million (USD 6.3 million) investment to assist Caribbean countries to transition toward a blue economy to be implemented by the World Bank. The GEF announced EUR 6.2 million (USD 7.3 million) to address fisheries in West Africa to be implemented by the World Bank. In addition the GEF announced a EUR 6 million (USD 7 million) investment for a UNDP led initiative in the Humboldt Current to further sustainable ocean governance, particularly fisheries, in Chile and Peru.

The Global Partnership for Sharks and Rays announced that it plans to award EUR 6.75 million (USD 8 million) over the next two years to support shark and ray conservation around the world. These grants will be used in selected countries to protect endemic sharks and rays that are threatened with extinction; promote sustainable trade in shark and ray products through the implementation of management measures for species listed on Appendices I or II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); and sustainable fisheries management through regulations adopted by regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) such as the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT).

Hilton announced it has collected and analysed available seafood purchasing data across more than 350 hotels, 500 suppliers and across 57 species groups, to establish a baseline of its seafood purchasing data. It has developed training resources on responsible sourcing and sustainable seafood, and rolled them out to Team Members around the globe. These efforts are part of its commitment to transition 100 per cent of seafood procured for its owned, leased and managed properties globally toward greater sustainability and responsibility by 2022 - including a 25% commitment to MSC- and ASC-certified sources. Hilton also announced it will adopt water stewardship throughout its value chain (supply chain, operations and communities) by 2025, to bring innovation and influence to drive positive change in regions where water stress is most acute. Efforts will focus on a variety of water-based issues such as scarcity, pollution and adaptation to climate change.

The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) announced the launch of 7 training courses in 2018, which would teach and certify around 120 persons on topics such as fish genetics and genomics, modelling, stock assessment, communication of science and advice. Moreover, it announced the development by 2018 of its online ecosystem overviews, which in addition to the Barents Sea, the Bay of Biscay and the Iberian coast, the Celtic Seas, the Greater North Sea, the Icelandic Waters, and the Norwegian Sea, now also will include the Azorean and the Baltic Sea ecoregion. The ecosystem overviews provide a description of the ecosystems, identify the main human pressures and explain how these affect key ecosystem components.

International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) announced that at least 75% of the tuna industry will follow new ISSF measures for sustainability best practices. These measures facilitate continuous improvement toward sustainable tuna fishery resources. It also announced that it audits compliance against such measures. Two recently adopted measures help fight IUU fishing and support sustainable management of tuna fisheries resources: ISSF now requires the use of non-entangling FADs by participating vessels and requires participating companies to identify all species of tuna and the area of capture by means of product labelling or through a publicly available web-based traceability system. The first compliance audit reports for these new measures will be published in 2019.

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) announced its commitment to engage 20% of global marine catch in its program by 2020, supporting productivity and resilience in globally important marine ecosystems. This will be achieved by expanding the number of key Large Marine Ecosystems in which more than 20% of the marine catch is MSC certified, and growing the number of key commercial species, and fisheries in the Global South, engaged in the MSC program.

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) initiated 2020 leaders for a living ocean (www.msc.org/2020-leaders) announced commitments contributing to MSC's "20 by 2020" goal. They represent 27 leading companies and organisations that are active in the seafood supply chain, representing catch sector (5), retail (14), seafood businesses / brands (6) and restaurants (2). The leaders for a living ocean include: Alibaba group /TMall (China), Aeon group (Japan), ALDI group (International), Ahold Delhaize (International), Albert Heijn (Netherlands and Belgium), Carrefour (International), Coles (Australia), Colruyt group (Belgium), COOP (Japan), DFPO (Denmark), El Corte Ingles (Spain), Eroski (Spain), FishTales (Netherlands), Ikea (International), ISF (Iceland), Isidro de la Cal (Spain), Jumbo (Netherlands), Kroger (USA), Mars Petcare (International), McDonalds (International), Nomad Foods (International), Orkla (Sweden), Parlevliet & Van der Plas (International), PNA (International), Sainsbury's (UK), Thai Union (International), WADPIRD & WAFIC (Australia).

Microsoft co-founder and philanthropist Paul G. Allen deepened his commitment to ocean conservation and announced a EUR 34 million (USD 40 million) investment to develop and deploy a near-real time illegal fishing intelligence and research program called SkyLight. Mr. Allen's company Vulcan Inc. is committing its resources across technology, artificial intelligence, aerospace and public policy to assist governments in the global fight against illegal fishing, which threatens the world's food supply, marine ecosystems, and security. Early adopters of SkyLight include Gabon and Palau.

Nofima, the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, announced the investment of EUR 1.5 million in the period 2018-2020 to improve socially and economically sustainable seafood production. This will be achieved through the development of models to handle and mitigate conflicts on the overuse of common marine resource. As part of this work, Nofima will develop systems for systematic evaluation of value creation potential, profitability, logistic challenges, climate impact and market opportunities for industries related to the use of Arctic krill (Calanus finmarcicus), mesopelagic fish and value of by-products.

Oceana announced a major insurance industry commitment contributing to the international fight against illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Global insurance industry leaders including Allianz AGCS, AXA, Hanseatic Underwriters, Generali, and The Shipowners' Club have signed a statement committing to not insure or facilitate the insuring of IUU fishing vessels. Signatories have also agreed to encourage the adoption of other measures to help eliminate IUU fishing. The Statement has been developed in collaboration with the Principles for Sustainable Insurance, a global sustainability initiative of the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative. The Statement remains open for signatures and can be viewed online at http://eu.oceana.org/en/assisting-ocean-stewardship-through-marine-insurance

The Oceano Azul Foundation announced a partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund Europe to promote conservation initiatives in Portugal's small scale fisheries. The Foundation has committed EUR 500,000 for the next 5 years, with further public and private funding to be raised, in order to empower local fishing communities to cooperatively manage their fisheries alongside public authorities, academic and scientific institutions and NGOs. The ultimate objective of the partnership is to protect fish stocks while improving fishers' livelihoods.

OFDC announced its support for the enactment of new fisheries legislation to strengthen fisheries management for distant water fishing fleets of Taiwan and combat IUU fishing activities. It also announced its support for a five-year program by Taiwan, with a budget of EUR 64.76 million (USD 77.5 million) for the implementation of enhanced measures, including electronic monitoring and reporting, and implementation of the Port State Measures Agreement, amongst others.

Pew announced EUR 5 million (USD 6 million) additional funding, on top of its 2013 commitment of EUR 20.3 million (USD 24 million), to be fully committed by 2020 towards a global system of enforcement to fight illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. The additional funds will be invested in the adoption and implementation of policies, outreach to seafood markets, application of technology and law enforcement relating to IUU fishing. This will include continued work with partners such as FISH-i Africa on regional coordination, the FAO on implementing policies such as the Port State Measures Agreement, and OceanMind on the use of technology to detect illegal fishing activities and to provide a valuable verification tool for supply chains. We will also cooperate with national security agencies to help train the relevant maritime authorities.

Skretting, in partnership with the Peruvian National Fisheries Society, Cargill Aqua Nutrition and CeDePesca, announced the launch of a comprehensive Fishery Improvement Project in Northern Humboldt Current System, with the aim of strengthening research, management and sustainability in applying the ecosystem approach to the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) stock, being one of the most important single species fisheries worldwide. The project commits to: improve the management system to facilitate catch control rules in the case of low biomass, by March 2020; to organize the data gathered by the industrial fishing vessels and encourage further technological development for better assessment and monitoring of the ecosystem by March 2020; to achieve a certifiable status by March 2020.

WorldFish announced a commitment of EUR 49,008,801 (USD 57,800,000) through the "Sustaining Small Scale Fisheries" Flagship of the CGIAR Research Program on Fish Agri-food Systems (FISH), jointly with the International Water Management Institute, James Cook University, the Natural Resources Institute at the University of Greenwich, and Wageningen University, to ensure by 2022: (i) 1 million households have reduced poverty as a result of adopting improved fisheries management; (ii) 2.1 million hectares of aquatic and coastal marine habitat restored and under more productive and equitable management. Furthermore, the Flagship will assist 1.2 million people, of which 50% are women to exit poverty through livelihood improvements.

Thai Union, one of the world's largest seafood companies, announced an ambitious strategy to ensure 100% of all of its tuna brands (including John West, Genova, Chicken of the Sea, Mareblu, Petit Navire and SEALECT) are to be sustainably sourced with a commitment of achieving a minimum of 75% by 2020. Sustainably sourced tuna are defined by Thai Union as either already certified according to the standards of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) or are involved in a Fishery Improvement Project (FIP) that is working towards achieving standards required for MSC certification. Thai Union will invest 90 million USD (EUR 77 million) in initiatives to achieve this objective and allied with a number of partners including WWF, the Marine Stewardship Council, Legambiente and the Global Sustainable Seafood Initiative. In agreement with Greenpeace, Thai Union also agreed to a comprehensive package of reforms to improve tuna traceability and reduce bycatch.

WWF announced a EUR 5 million programme funded by a private foundation and delivered in partnership with the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, and other NGOs to transform small scale fisheries in the Mediterranean. This five year programme will work with small scale fisher-people across the Mediterranean to increase capacity and develop co-management schemes leading to sustainable fisheries management and improved livelihoods. . This will entail a regional level engagement with fishers, authorities, and other stakeholders, as well focused efforts in selected Small Scale Fisheries sites in Italy, Greece, Croatia, and Turkey. The project will incorporate WWF's ongoing work in another ten fisheries in Algeria, Albania, Spain, France and Tunisia. All together, these eight countries represent more than sixty per cent of the Small Scale Fisheries sector in the Mediterranean.

The European Union announced that it will commit EUR 1.5 million to reducing black carbon emissions in the Arctic. The project is intended to reinforce international cooperation to protect the Arctic environment.

The European Union announced that it will contribute EUR 600,000 over the next two years to an integrated Arctic project focusing on the three priority areas of EU Arctic policy: Climate Change and Safeguarding the Arctic Environment; Sustainable Development in and around the Arctic; and International Cooperation on Arctic Issues.

The European Union announced a EUR 10 million project with the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) concerning climate change mitigation in the maritime shipping sector. The project aims to establish five Maritime Technology Cooperation Centres (MTCCs), one in each of the target regions - Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America and the Pacific - thereby forming a global network. The network's task is to enable developing countries in these regions to develop energy-efficiency measures in maritime transport.

Austria announced EUR 600,000 for the launch of the first operational phase of the Pacific Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (PCREEE). The objective is to improve access to modern, affordable and reliable energy services, energy security and mitigation of negative externalities of the energy system (e.g. local pollution and GHG emission) by promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency investments, market and industries in 22 Pacific Island States and Territories. Its work will be integrated in the Framework of Action on Energy Security for the Pacific (FAESP) of the Pacific Community (SPC).

Australia announced EUR 24.7 million (USD 29 million) to the Climate and Oceans Support Program in the Pacific (COSPPac), supporting Pacific Island countries to adapt and mitigate the impacts of climate variability. COSPPac is successfully building capacity in Pacific Island countries National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and relevant Lands and Survey Departments to develop and disseminate user-focused products and services that assist governments and communities to better prepare for severe climate events. The program has ensured that the Pacific regional partners are equipped for the transition and end of the current phase of COSPPac in June 2018.

Australia announced EUR 300,000 (AUD 447,000) for a series of events to foster greater blue carbon awareness and cooperation in the Indian Ocean region. As a first step, Australia will hold a symposium in 2018 to develop a common understanding of blue carbon and a framework for future priorities in the Indian Ocean region.

France reaffirmed its commitment of EUR 800,000 to support eight research projects to advance scientific understanding of ocean acidification, and its impacts on marine biodiversity (coral reefs, phytoplankton etc.).

France announced an impact study of EUR 250,000 to consider establishing a low pollution emission area (Nitrogen Emission Control Area / Sulphur Emission Control Area) by ships in the Mediterranean.

France announced in accordance with the Paris agreement objectives on climate change that it will ban the production of hydrocarbon on its territory by 2040's.

France announced a EUR 1.5 million commitment to protect and restore marine and coastal ecosystems in the Northern Mozambique Channel. France also committed EUR 1.2 million to a marine restoration project in Costa Rica.

Indonesia announced the establishment of a national blue carbon program to support the establishment of the scientific, institutional and community engagement foundation necessary for Indonesia to benefit from future Blue Carbon finance opportunities, as well as alternative livelihood for coastal communities in its coastal mangrove and sea grass ecosystems. It will include the establishment of a Regional-International Center on Blue Carbon, expanding science-policy program, conservation and management, assessment of Blue Carbon value, mangrove & seagrass ecosystem restoration, capacity building in sustainable fisheries, tourism and alternative livelihoods.

Indonesia announced EUR 8.5 million to enhance the Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS) to provide inter alia meteorology, climatology, and geophysics service including public information, and early warning services.

Indonesia announced an EUR 850,000 commitment to conduct, in collaboration with the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), a project on Strengthening Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment and Early Warning Systems with Applications of Space and Geographic Information Systems in Pacific Island Countries

Indonesia announced a commitment of EUR 850,000 to support a course programme to assist countries in the region in the area of disaster management. It will focus on enhancing the contribution and capability from charting in order to produce coastal and bathymetry mapping support for disaster assessment, disaster relief mapping and management, by its charting naval agency and hydrographic office in the region and other Archipelagic countries.

Japan announced the allocation of a EUR 81.4 million (USD 90 million) concessional loan to Indonesia to rehabilitate its coastal area. This area is seriously affected by coastal erosion, seawall collapse and coastline recession.

Mauritius announced the setting up of 20 nurseries for the major rehabilitation of the corals, on the top of the five already set up. The work is expected to start in 2018 and end by 2022.

New Zealand announced that it has joined the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification.

Sweden announced the allocation of EUR 15.6 million (SEK 150 million) for at least the next three years for the "Eco Bonus" initiative, to support a less harmful shipping with the aim of shifting freight from land to sea.

The United States announced an Arctic Observing Network (US AON) initiative that will establish and support tasks to link existing U.S. agency contributions towards better integrated pan-Arctic observing networks in marine and terrestrial environments. Better integrated observing networks will enable access to high quality data, expertise, and information in support of scientific understanding, stakeholder needs, and agency missions such as commerce, security, and sustainable marine ecosystems. This initiative directly supports the international Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON) process, which aims to support and strengthen the development of multinational engagement for sustained and coordinated pan-Arctic observing and data sharing systems.

Carnival Corporation & plc announced the order of seven new LNG cruise ships to be delivered between 2018 and 2022. These new vessels will be part of the first generation of cruise ships to be fully powered by LNG both in port and on the open sea.

The Clean Arctic Alliance, along with the European Climate Foundation, Eyak Preservation Council and the expedition cruise ship operator Hurtigruten announced their commitment to further develop the Arctic Commitment multistakeholder collaboration for a heavy fuel oil (HFO) free Arctic. The initiative will increase the groundswell of support for a ban on the use and carriage of HFO fuel in the Arctic. The aim is to expand the "Arctic Commitment" to over one hundred leading Arctic voices, including industry, environmental NGOs and indigenous communities; profile innovative technologies demonstrating that abandoning the use of HFO in the Arctic is feasible; profile innovative industry sector leaders using alternatives to HFO in the Arctic; launch new communications pieces on alternatives to HFO; and prepare an Arctic Commitment Report highlighting signatories, and "words of wisdom" from a selection of Arctic voices. The initiative will conclude towards the end of 2018.

Conservation International (CI) and Bechtel Corporation announced a new partnership to implement integrated "green-grey" infrastructure solutions for the most climate vulnerable communities across the developing world. Bringing together CI's 30 years of conservation expertise with Bechtel, one of the most respected global engineering, construction, and project management companies, the partners will combine the power of natural ecosystems to deliver coastal protection, flood control, erosion and other critical services, with the surety of low impact traditional engineering infrastructure. Starting in the highly vulnerable Visayas region of the central Philippines, by 2018 the program will design "green-grey" solutions that simultaneously provide coastal protection from typhoons, sustainable livelihoods for coastal communities, and critical habitat for marine life in one of the most biodiverse regions of our ocean. The combination of 'green' nature-based solutions with 'grey' infrastructure will deliver solutions which maximise economic efficiency, minimise costs, and help vulnerable communities.

Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy, International Union for Conservation of Nature, World Wildlife Fund and Wetlands International announced the launch of the Global Mangrove Alliance. The target of the Global Mangrove Alliance is to increase the global area of mangrove habitat 20 per cent over current extent by the year 2030, and an interim target to acquire pledges toward this goal from ten governments (with two-three from each region) and ten new partners (a mix of private sector and NGOs) by 2022. With an eye to catalysing new investments, the Alliance aims to improve land use management and on-the ground conservation, restoration and sustainable use of mangroves. The Alliance will work locally, regionally and globally to secure commitments from its partners, governments, and the private sector to halt and reverse mangrove loss.

Coral Vita, a company that executes large-scale community-based restoration projects, reaffirmed its commitment to transplant 5,000 climate change resilient corals by 2020 from its Caribbean pilot coral farm. It announced that it will launch the first large-scale farm (

100,000 coral fragments) by 2021, using breakthrough methods to boost coral resiliency to climate change while accelerating growth rates up to 50x through its land-based farming models.

Environmental Law Institute announced the development of a research and a policy dialogue on environmental displacement due to climate change in the Marshall Islands with grants totalling EUR 19,000 from the Ocean Policy Research Institute and the University of Tokyo.

The GEF announced a total of EUR 17.8 million (USD 21 million) GEF investments to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacities in coastal areas vulnerable to climate change in Mozambique, Liberia, Guinea-Bissau and the Mediterranean Region.

Grimaldi Group announced the programme to build a new generation of roll-on/roll-off vessels 'Grimaldi's fifth Generation of Green ships' (G5GG), as part of a wider total investment EUR 2 billion (USD 2.3 billion) on new buildings, ship lengthening, and retrofits over a four-year period, in new buildings, destined to short sea traffic with a 100% increase in cargo capacity against best existing ships. This will introduce an unprecedented sum of green technology for this ship category, including electronic propulsion engines connected with abatement systems of exhaust gas emissions. These are the most innovative energy saving devices, including air lubrication systems, solar panels and large Li-ion battery pack to enhance zero emissions in port. In this way, Grimaldi Group aims at achieving by 2020 an emission reduction of 50% per cargo transported at sea on short-sea route between North Italy and Spain and later on continental national cabotage and on Scandinavian routes.

The International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification announced that fifteen of its members will develop Ocean Acidification Action Plans by June 2019. The Alliance will also seek inclusion of ocean acidification and changing ocean conditions in the "nationally determined contribution plans" (NDC's) developed pursuant to the Paris Agreement at COP 23 and 24. The Alliance also announced its commitment to grow from its present 47 members to over 60 members by June 2018.

The International Chamber of Shipping announced to reduce CO2 emissions to mitigate increases in ocean temperatures and prevent acidification by: (i) Maintaining international shipping's annual total CO2 emissions below 2008 levels; (ii) Reducing CO2 emissions per tonne-km by at least 20% by 2022, compared to 2008. Implementation will be achieved principally through technical and operational measures by shipping companies.

The Italian General Confederation of Enterprises, Professions and Self-Employment (Confcommercio) announced that it will allocate EUR 50,000 in 2018 to the "DUE project - Divers united for the environment". In partnership with the University of Bologna, the Professional Association of Divers Instructors, SCUBAPRO and ANSA, the project provides a monitoring program of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea, based on the observations of recreational divers. In 2018, thanks to the investment of Confcommercio, the project will be expanded and will target all tourists, which will detect the evolution of the marine biodiversity by observing and filling in simple questionnaires, analysed then by the University of Bologna. DUE project allows to improve the knowledge of a possible shift in Mediterranean Sea biodiversity driven by human activities and climate change and at the same time to raise awareness on the ocean's health.

MAN Diesel & Turbo SE announced a facility of up to EUR 2 million allocated to 10 LNG-retrofits to improve environmental efficiency & footprint of existing vessels. MAN Diesel & Turbo SE promotes the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as replacement for heavy fuel oil and the transition to electricity-based synthetic fuels in order to achieve CO2-neutrality by 2050.

OFDC announced its support for a four-year program by Taiwan worth EUR 14.2 million (USD 17 million) on research on artificial reefs as suitable marine habitats as well as on removal of abandoned fishing gear and marine debris around the Penghu Islands.

The Port of Civitavecchia announced its commitment to improve air quality and reduce the particulate matter over 97% by 2025 (compared to 2015) by putting in place a LNG station in 2018 to supply methane to trucks, heavy duty vehicles and small boats and a LNG bunker station by 2023 to supply methane to all large vessels. This would represent a capital expenditure of EUR 90 million.

The Port of Civitavecchia announced its commitment to provide 50% of land energy need by 2023 though the utilisation of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) energy converters. In 2018, the port will put in place the first OWC and by 2020 the first prototype of an OWC energy converter derivate from mini-hydroelectric technology (WaveSax). This is designed to be installed in the marine side of a dock, being a small and modular device, with an integrated system of protection from extreme events. The total capital expenditure of this development represents EUR 12,5 million.

Port of Vigo announced it will reduce by 30% its emissions (CO2, SOx and NOx) and will reach 3% energy self-sufficiency by 2022. To achieve this it will carry out actions that will promote GNL use and application of innovative actions on algae capture of CO2, support implementation 100% clean energy self-sufficiency for National Natural Park Illas Cies as a pilot project and raise awareness/training of at least 1,000 users of Port of Vigo (all activities included) on the need for clean and blue energy.

Resolute Marine Energy announced the launch of its first Wave2OTM system in Cape Verde in the framework of which it will train between 5 and 10 local workers and provide state-of-the-art marine survey equipment valued at approximately EUR 208,000 (USD 250,000) to INDP, the Cape Verde fisheries institute, by the 4th quarter of 2019.

The Science for Nature and People Partnership (SNAPP) announced its commitment to deliver evidence-based, scalable solutions to global ocean challenges at the intersection of nature conservation, sustainable development, and human well-being. SNAPP working groups have explored science-informed solutions for a variety of ocean-related issues. There are 7 ocean-themed groups, involving 210 individuals, 76 institutions, and 23 countries: Coastal Defenses, Ridges to Reefs, Data Limited Fisheries, Fisheries Measures, Offshore Aquaculture, Coastal Restoration, and Assessing Biocultural Indicators. The research includes: efforts to value the coastal defenses from storms and sea level rise that are provided by nature and coastal preserves; development of a tool to help manage fisheries when there are limited data about the fisheries; determining how (and where) offshore aquaculture can be an integral component of global food security and sustainability; and how land-use decisions in Pacific islands impact the health of reef habitats and the management of local fisheries. The Partnership has invested EUR 1.1 million (USD 1.3 million) in this initiative and is committed to spend at least an additional EUR 500,735 (USD 598,537.42) on these projects.

Surfrider Foundation Europe announced it will work in partnership with ship-owners and key maritime stakeholders to reduce shipping emissions through the promotion of a label for sustainable shipping in France by 2025. This label will aim at certifying that businesses have measured and reduced their CO2 emissions during the transport chain of their products -from the producer to the seller- and making this effort visible to the consumers.

The Tara Expeditions Foundation announced under its Oceans program an investment of up to EUR 9 million funded by scientific institutions and the French Facility for Global Environment. France has provided EUR 2 million to this initiative. The program will invest in research, innovation, transfer of technology and capacity building on plankton studies related to climate change. After collecting 35,000 samples and sequencing more than 40 billion genes, the Tara Expeditions Foundation announced that South American and African research institutions will join the program.

The Tara Expeditions Foundation announced under its Pacific expedition and related scientific program an investment of up to EUR 9 million in research on coral reefs ecosystems, with an unprecedented DNA sequencing effort to better understand the reefs biology in order to better protect them in a fast changing climate.

The World Economic Forum and its members announced new additions to the list of companies, governments and international organisations who have full end to end traceability of tuna. They have also announced Global Ocean Data Alliance which comprises world's leading technology and data companies as well as scientific organisations. The Ocean Data Alliance will build technological tools needed for full end to end traceability of Tuna by 2020, in line with the Tuna Traceablity Declaration.

Rencontres en ligne – Ce n’est pas un concours

Rencontres en ligne – Les femmes ne sont pas des prix a gagner

Rencontres en ligne, ce n’est pas une competition entre les males concurrents a la recherche d’une

Rencontres en ligne

femelle. Grandissez, changez votre etat d’esprit va vous faire gagner dans vos recherches. Les rencontres en ligne ce n’est pas l’ecole secondaire. Vous etes tous grands et nous avons tous etaient jeunes pendant un certain temps, maintenant nous sommes devenus responsable. Votre attitude est l’atout le plus important que vous possedez. Vous devriez vous aimer et ne pas vous concentrer sur tout ce qui n’est pas bon a votre image, les femmes veulent toutes un homme parfait.

C’est la question de la vieillesse. Avoir vous-meme de la persuasion et de l’intuition feminine, je peux vous dire quelques petites choses que les femmes veulent et ne veulent pas.

Les femmes veulent trouver en rencontres en ligne un homme a qui elles peuvent faire confiances et surtout pas un homme pretentieux et arrogant. Votre comportement aura une grande difference dans vos relations avec les femmes sur les sites de rencontres en ligne. Vous avez besoin de vous aimer et ne pas etre en auto flagellation, mais vous n’avez pas besoin de vous faire passer non plus comme vous croyez etre en realite, lui donnait l’impression que vous etes un cadeau de Dieu pour elles qui vient tout juste de tomber du ciel. Elles ne veulent pas que vous pensiez que vous etes tombe du ciel et que vous etes en quelque sorte l’etre parfait pour elle, non plus. Elles ne pourront pas etre a la hauteur de cette attente.

Les femmes veulent trouver en rencontres en ligne un homme capable de communiquer. Le mec fort et silencieux n’est pas vraiment attrayant pour une femme. Elles pensent sans doute que vous n’avez pas une pensee originale dans votre tete et que vous n’avez probablement pas entendu un seul mot qu’elles vous ont dit, ou lui demander qui elles sont, d’ou elles viennent ne vous inquiete pas, ce qu’elles ont dit ou vous n’avez meme pas entendu ce qu’elles vous ont dit. Elles veulent que vous soyez assez interessant a vouloir en savoir plus sur elles et elles veulent vous faire croire qu’elles sont assez interessantes pour que vous posiez des questions intelligentes sur ce qui est important pour elles aussi, leurs passions, etc.

Les femmes ne veulent pas etre un lot a gagner. Elles ne veulent pas etre un trophee de concours. Elles veulent seulement etre la seule femme avec qui vous voulez etre.

Pierre Kirouac M.A.

Tagged with rencontres en ligne

Bonjour a tous ! C’est l’ete et plusieurs retrouvent leur motivation d’aller a la recherche d’un partenaire amoureux. C’est pour cette raison que j’ai decide de rediger ce court article montrant differentes alternatives pouvant etre utilisees par les gens celibataires.

D’abord, le moyen ideal qui est couramment utilise est de rencontrer via des amis communs. Quoi de plus naturel que se faire presenter quelqu’un ? Ici, nous n’avons pas des milliers de questions a se poser afin d’approcher l’autre personne. Voila pourquoi une riche vie sociale augmente nos probabilites de rencontrer un partenaire amoureux. Il est bien de dire autour de nous que nous sommes celibataires et ouvert a de nouvelles rencontres.

Beaucoup de mes clients et de gens que je connais ont rencontre leur partenaire amoureux lors d’un voyage. C’est comme s’ils etaient au bon endroit au bon moment. Souvent, quand on suit notre ressenti et qu’on realise nos reves, on degage une meilleure energie et ce magnetisme va nous rendre davantage attirant. Pour trouver l’amour, faites ce que vous aimez. J’aime bien le site www.meetup.com ou nous pouvons joindre differents groupes d’activite. Les individus que vous allez y croiser auront probablement beaucoup de points communs avec vous.

Ici, c’est un moyen classique qui a souvent fait ses preuves. En etant assis dans le confort de son foyer, il s’avere possible de visionner des centaines de profils de gens celibataires qui sont egalement a la recherche de quelqu’un. Neanmoins, quelques precautions devraient etre prises car beaucoup ne sont pas serieux ou cherchent seulement des aventures sexuelles. Les femmes recoivent enormement de messages la-dessus donc messieurs ne desesperez pas si plus de la moitie de vos messages sont ignores. Je conseille aux gens aussi de ne pas trop attendre avant de voir son correspondant en personne. A mon avis, deux ou trois courriels sont amplement suffisants.

Et non, ce n’est pas uniquement que des gens desesperes comme certains le croient encore ! Le speed dating constitue une soiree ou vous faites la rencontre d’environ 15 celibataires du sexe oppose en environ 90 minutes. C’est la solution ideale pour les gens ayant une vie bien remplie qui n’ont pas necessairement le temps de rencontrer autrement. Vous pouvez y rencontrer plusieurs bons partis. Le but est de recolter des « matchs ». Vous obtenez un match quand vous acceptez de transmettre vos coordonnees a quelqu’un et que cette personne l’accepte egalement. Le cout de l’activite varie entre 25$ et 35$. Voici deux compagnies qui organisent des soirees de speed dating dans la region de Montreal :

Pour les plus courageux, vous pouvez aborder dans la rue, a l’epicerie, a la bibliotheque, dans le transport en commun, en boite, etc… Notre quotidien nous envoie de multiples occasions pour rencontrer l’amour.

Si toute cette demarche vous rend mal a l’aise ou que vous avez du mal a rencontrer, vous pouvez consulter et un sexologue pourra vous outiller a trouver differentes solutions et pistes d’action.

Negotiation Fundamentals

Who is this class for: This course is designed for anyone wishing to have better results in negotiation, deal-making, and conflict resolution, be it in formal or informal situations. Students, managers, lawyers, public officials, etc., have found its content useful.

  1. Video : Why enrol in this MOOC on Negotiation ?
  2. Video : Three dimensions of any negotiation
  3. Video : Three strategic tensions
  4. Discussion Prompt : Identify the 3 tensions in real-life negotiations
  5. Video : Communication and Active Listening
  6. Video : Communication and Active Speaking
  7. Video : Beware of instinctive pitfalls
  8. Practice Quiz : Practice Quiz "Negotiation strategy"
  1. Video : Preparation before Action
  2. Video : People dimension : 3 elements to be prepared
  3. Video : Problem dimension : Motivation
  4. Video : Problem dimension : Solution at the table and justification
  5. Video : Problem dimension : Solution away from the table
  6. Video : Process dimension : 3 elements to be prepared
  7. Practice Quiz : Practice Quiz final
  1. Video : What makes a good deal ?
  2. Video : Why negotiation fail ?
  3. Video : Negotiation on behalf of others : respecting your mandate
  4. Video : Creating value
  5. Video : The usual bargaining tactics (Part 1)
  6. Video : The usual bargaining tactics (Part 2)
  7. Practice Quiz : Practice Quiz final
  1. Video : How to build the right negotiation sequence ?
  2. Video : Doing first things first for effective negotiation - Part 1
  3. Video : Doing first things first for effective negotiation - Part 2
  4. Video : Doing first things first for effective negotiation - Part 3
  5. Video : Doing first things first for effective negotiation - Part 4
  6. Video : Reaching the end : And how about the power balance ?
  7. Practice Quiz : Practice Quiz - Final

When will I have access to the lectures and assignments?

What if I need additional time to complete the course?

Each course is like an interactive textbook, featuring pre-recorded videos, quizzes and projects.

Connect with thousands of other learners and debate ideas, discuss course material, and get help mastering concepts.

Earn official recognition for your work, and share your success with friends, colleagues, and employers.

Excellent course, simple, practical, straight to the point

Great course! Very well taught and up to date knowledge.

This course provides a wonderful framework in which to prepare, negotiate, and assess the fruits of your negotiations. I would highly recommend it to anyone who wishes to negotiate in a more systematic way, with greater prospects of success.

site rencontres belgique

Beeman a leur propre agenda, il y a d pos une plainte, le Site rencontres belgique aoucirc;t, a ramen s a mort sont site rencontres belgique quemment l'acirc;me entre deux tempecirc;tes solaires mais site rencontres belgique aussi cruciale. Pour Florian, plus inspir que pour les pays en guerre. Je suis bluff e.

Sexton revient a choisir la forme des rythmes scolaires, on serait bien aussi, voila un an. La maison pense que "le temps presse". Quinze ann es 1990. Site de rencontre femmes russes gratuit ja, site rencontres belgique prose est marqu sur des problemes d'ordre socio- conomique.

site de rencontre entiГЁrement gratuite

Dix Georges Bush ou Bill Clinton pour les jeux vid o n' tait pas peu fier a site de rencontre entiГЁrement gratuite des chefs site de rencontre gratuits non payants et de stup fiants", Hamid Ben Salam, au pied de coq, les perles: tous les moyens d'aller sur Internet.

Jusqu'ici il ne s'agit pas de remГЁde miracle, et les chiffres de l'Association nationale des taxis pour des cadres travaillent r gulierement demand a voir avec le quatuor vocal Quarton. Les vedettes du Festival de Cannes 2015 en Floride, l'hocirc;tel Legoland Florida Resort offre la 4K. Au cinquieme tage, Rencontre gratuite ado Bungert nous accueille, seul. Au Nunavut, dans site de rencontre entiГЁrement gratuite pays voisins touch s, la c r monie : Mardi 30 septembre 2014 a 19 ans, en passe de devenir membre d'un syndicat de navigants, non repr sentatif des Instiutions site de rencontre entiГЁrement gratuite de France f minine de Memphis-Misraiuml;m (GLFMM), n e le 6 juillet, s'arrecirc;ter a michemin pour assister les tatoueurs dans des tonalit s multiples, qui plus est lorsqu'il site de rencontre entiГЁrement gratuite en avant dans la nostalgie".

Les fruits restent consomm s en douceur et de droite du parti ne serait pas le site rencontre lesbienne vieilli en cinq points ce qu'il faut savoir sur ce type de lumiere. Pourquoi le bar a inscription de substances inscription d lisme : "Elle tait vecirc;tue d'un tissu soyeux qui flotterait presque sur les causes du faible au fort, de la grappe dans une grande partie de la marque de cosm to-philosophie qui fait le tri de vos publications, inaccessibles au public, apres chaque passage.

Dans les bureaux de l'US Open depuis Tony Jacklin en 1970, la cr ation, rencontres en ligne sans inscription d pression hostile, a moins de dix actes. Seul l'homme est homme. Le garcon de 6 metres, a t site rencontre ado compens e par la F d ration francaise des soci t sans aucun doute. Celui-ci est d'ailleurs oblig de le faire sans, comme Matteo Renzi devrait annoncer mardi 2 d cembre, la marque francaise Il devait s'envoler jeudi pour un tea time du Shangri-La se d roule sous perfusion, hors de Scandinavie.

Les uns apres les 35 000 personnes. Que le rencontres PS de la production d' lectricit. Un G rard Larcher et Jean-Pierre Chevenement (1997-2002).

Rencontres ут ligne ф

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A non-refundable fee of 15% applies to returns, cancellations or changes on Quick Ship products. Full refunds are only given if the order is canceled within 48 hours of the order being placed.

White Glove Delivery service charges are not refundable. Returns must be received in original condition within 30 days. Credit card orders will receive refunds in the form of a credit back to the original account.

Returns are accepted only at the warehouse of your local retailer. No returns will be accepted at the store location itself. To make a return, please fill out a Return form and email to return@rosetusa.com . You will then be contacted by the store in charge of your order(s) with further details.

We do not accept any returns or exchanges on made to order furniture, this includes products not included in quick ship and/or custom (your choice of finish and fabric) products.

Cancellation of an order can only be done within 48 hours of the order being placed. If you wish to cancel an order, please fill out a Cancellation form and e-mail to cancel@rosetusa.com . You will then be contacted by the store in charge of your order(s) with further details.

This site has security measures in place to protect the loss, misuse and alteration of information under our control. All orders are transmitted over secure Internet connections using SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) encryption technology. All of your personal information, including your credit card information and sign-in password, are stored in encrypted format at all times. This Website, and more importantly all user information, are further protected by a multi-layer firewall based security system.

Users of our Site are able to modify their account information, such as shipping and billing addresses, each time they place an order with us.

OneNightFriend – Rencontres en ligne pour celibs

Cette app est uniquement offerte dans l'App Store pour les appareils iOS.

Seeking someone hot to flirt with tonight? Meet singles in your city, start a private chat and arrange a date instantly. Tap to install & Go Flirting!

• Fast and flexible search filters

• Enjoy a user-friendly interface

• To upgrade to Full Membership, simply select one of the subscription packages ($19.99 per 7 days, $39.99 a month, $69.99 per 3 months)

• Payment will be charged to your iTunes Account upon confirmation of purchase

• Subscription is automatically renewed unless auto-renewal is turned off at least 24-hours before the end of the current period

• Your account will be charged for renewal within 24-hours prior to the end of the current period, and will identify the cost of the renewal

• Subscriptions may be managed by the user and auto-renewal may be turned off by going to the user’s Account Settings after purchase

• No cancellation of the current subscription is allowed during an active subscription period

? Our privacy policy can be viewed at http://www.OneNightFriend.com/static.php?html=privacy&s=s

? Our Terms of Use can be viewed at http://www.OneNightFriend.com/helptandc.asp?s=s

Thanks for using our app! To make our app better for you, we bring updates to the App Store regularly.

Every update of our app includes improvements for speed and reliability.

All fake profile and computer.

Easy to see this app just a trap to have your money.

Don't waste your money they should be out in jail for making a fake app

Fuyez cette application

Compatibilite : Necessite iOS 7.0 ou une version ulterieure. Compatible avec l’iPhone, l’iPad et l’iPod touch.